Fabric Alexander Henry

April 6, 2005 by  
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documented risks of gas chambers and carbon monoxide poisoning

Four local agencies in the government of North Carolina have documented about the dangers of faulty gas chambers and cylinder supply public animal shelters since 2004. Leaks and defects were recorded Working with the Department in North Carolina, North Carolina Department of Health and Social Services, North Carolina Department of Agriculture, and Fire Marshals and local Stokes County Reidsville. The results of these organs were obtained through requests for public records.

Most gas chambers in our state that there had not been officially inspected by 2004. Since then, thousands of complaints from residents to government officials and media have made the controversial method of euthanasia to the forefront.

One documents the most compelling is one of North Carolina Department of Labour Inspection Control Pets Sampson County in 2004 (1). Leaf calculation inspector said:

"The animal starts to beat because he can not breathe ... They wait 10 minutes until the animal stops making sounds, then turn on a fan that is supposed to remove the CO from the camera. "

Gas Monitor readings showed overexposure used carbon monoxide, which the agent believes that the "place where the door of the chamber is opened to remove the animal." There is no protection respiration has been provided for employees.

John Harris Reidsville Firefighters inspected a gas chamber in the Rockingham County Animal Control In 2004, the property Reidsville Veterinary Hospital, after repeated attempts to repair the gas leak (2). An inspection report in August 2004

"Harris is the conclusion that the door seals chamber room in ruins and has been damaged in several places. Harris also observed that attempts to repair the joints were made with what appeared to be caulk. He also noted that security systems complete in order to monitor levels of carbon monoxide has been disabled. vent at the top of the camera is not properly installed and sealed with what looks like the band. During operation of the camera monitors euthanasia with carbon monoxide is used to test current levels next to the camera .... levels of carbon monoxide exceeds 984 ppm in the field of the camera .... After the purge cycle for the elimination animals from a reading of 460 ppm in the room yet officially dead animal disposal. "

Not only the rooms Gas leaks and malfunctions, but the gas cylinders supplied by the providers of carbon monoxide have also been described as a potential hazard. Carolina North, Department of Labour Inspections revealed defective gas cylinders at the Columbus County Animal Control (3) and Davidson County Animal Control in 2006 (4). Davidson County inspection indicates that the national supply welders leak test nonformal cylinder. Inspection County Columbus said, "We have determined the overexposure occurred when the cylinder valve is initially opened, the CO, so that would be the engineering viable control is that of the cylinder and check valves. "Supervisor of Animal Control Rossie Hayes responded to NCDOL, asking" for any suggestions on how to check for leaks. "He asked if employees must use a certain type of respirator.

Stokes County Fire Marshal inspected dump truck rusty gas appliance in the control animals in Stokes County in January 2007 (5). A letter from Marshal her supervisor Sarah Shumate Housing documented high levels of gas in the tank and the door of the gas chamber. Mariscal Carrillo said Bradley

"During the process of euthanasia, levels of carbon monoxide by more than 1,000 ppm have been detected outside the door loading the chamber. It is unclear what the exact readings, which is due to follow a maximum reading of 1000 ppm .... Carbon monoxide is an immediate danger life and health in 1200 ppm. "

However, another gaping inspection was done for the Montgomery County Animal Control North Carolina Department of Agriculture inspector Shelly Swaim in 2007 (6). Swaim writing

"There I was informed by Mr. Beane the device has a leak and had visible cracks and a poor seal around the door. There is also no mechanism for the breakdown of the device. Prisoners are in a property and dealing with questions of the camera 12:17. It seems that this camera, even with the fixes CO busy at the moment is a significant risk to the safety and lives of the user. "

Industrial hygienist Marilyn Parker North Carolina Department of Health and Services has made gas readings followed by two animal shelters in the county of Granville County Animal Control control in 2006 (7) and Randolph Animals 2007 (8). Both inspections revealed high-level leaks of carbon monoxide on the edges of the door of the gas chamber. Cameras in the two facilities are modern, commercially manufactured units. Regarding the inspection of Randolph County, Parker wrote: "While the cameras were in operation with the monitor has been placed in various locations around the door seal. CO levels were detected above 500 ppm in the door gasket .... It was determined that the seals do not prevent the carbon monoxide (CO) to escape while the cameras were operational. "Mrs. Parker asked in the two letters he has been invited to follow-up inspections after corrections were made. In October 2008, Parker said he had no knowledge of any correspondence with county officials and inspections.

Higher levels of CO 10% are explosive, as claimed by the explosion of gas chamber at Iredell County Animal Control Statesville in 2008. There is no inspection report machine was available, but a draft law indicates that the aircraft had been purchased a few months before cutting the manufacture Edge After First sold to the Union Animal Control in Monroe County. In a recording and Statesville News Article (9), The Sword of Ownership Stephen Whitesell is quoted: "Whitesell believes that the fan somehow caused the carbon monoxide before the gas could be purged from the camera .... Whitesell said fan is not evidence of explosion. "Instead, the 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia include this warning Chambers of carbon monoxide, "Electrical equipment exposed to CO (eg lights and fans) must be flameproof. (10) Union County Sheriff Eddie Cathey told the Enquirer magazine in August 2008 (11) "that the device has been sold at Cutting Edge Iredell was presented three years ago because he had warped door. "These are some of the gas chambers and the most expensive high technology on the market. The gas chambers of the same brand would still be in use in Gaston, Cabarrus, facilities and control of the Union County animal.

Hazards to Humans

Carbon monoxide seeping from the gas chambers can not for shelter workers at risk of health problems, some be delayed for weeks after exposure.

* The 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia warns against humans devices that operate CO: "In humans, exposure to CO and CO 0.32% 0.45% for one hour at a loss of consciousness and death, respectively. Carbon monoxide is very dangerous for staff, which is highly toxic and difficult to detect. Chronic exposure to low concentrations of nitric Carbon can be a health hazard, particularly in relation to cardiovascular diseases and Teratogenicity. (10)

* Institute National Environmental Safety and Health issued an International Chemical Safety Cards carbon monoxide, which,

"The gas mixes well with air, explosive mixtures are easily formed. The gas penetrates easily through walls and ceilings ... fatal if inhaled. Adversely affect the fertility of May or the fetus if inhaled. It causes damage to the blood when inhaled. Causes Damage in the blood and central nervous system through prolonged exposure or hazard if inhaled repeatedly ... Inhalation: A harmful concentration of this gas in the air is reached very quickly on loss of containment. Effects of short term exposure: The substance may have effects on blood resulting in carboxyhaemoglobinemia and heart disease. Exposure to high concentrations can cause death. Effects of exposure long-term or repeated: The substance may have effects on the cardiovascular system and central nervous system. May cause reproductive toxicity or human development. (12)

* The Environmental Protection Agency United States said: "Perhaps the most insidious effect of CP intoxication is the development of neuropsychiatric delayed 2 to 28 days after poisoning and the slow resolution of the consequences neurobehavioral. (15)

* According to an article published in the Journal of American Medical Association in 2006, "Researchers have discovered a link between intoxication carbon monoxide and years later, death from heart disease. (14)

* A data sheet from National Security welders On procurement, a major supplier of animal shelters bottled carbon monoxide, said carbon monoxide is "harmful if inhaled. Cause of Damage to the following organs: blood, lungs, cardiovascular system, central nervous system. The steam can swell ... Extremely flammable. The gas can accumulate in confined areas to travel a considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back causing fire or explosion. (18)

* A study by Ramona Hopkins and Mr. Fu Bleach Woon, said: "It is estimated that up to 50% of people a carbon monoxide poisoning are neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral sequelae or cognitive. (17)

* A study of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning from LDS Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1999 concluded: "Eighty-three percent of patients showed a variety cognitive impairment, including decreased attention, memory, executive function and mental processing speed. Eighty-five percent of patients experienced mood changes such as depression and anxiety. (18)

* Yona Amati studied the effects of exposure to low levels of CO higher cognitive functions. The study concluded, "The odds of most neuropsychological tests indicate low memory dysfunction, the ability to learn new, attention and concentration, tracking skills, visuomotor skills, abstract thought, of Planning and the visuospatial sketchpad. These dysfunctions correspond with previous reports of the effects of carbon monoxide in patients with nerve moderate poisoning of carbon monoxide. low levels of exposure to carbon monoxide results in the deterioration of cognitive functions higher. (19)

* A study in 1925 by William C. Stadie and Martin Kirby Yale University School of Medicine, said: "From time to time the blood becomes free carbon monoxide and end the state of coma, but then the patient falls into a coma and died, probably due to damage the central nervous system. (20)

* A 2006 study by Christopher Henry, Daniel Satran, MD states, "Myocardial injury is a frequent consequence CO poisoning moderate to severe. "(21)

* The Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said: "The red blood cells pick up CO quicker than they pick up oxygen. If there is a large amount of CO in the air, the body can replace oxygen in the blood with CO. This blocks oxygen from entering the body, which can damage tissue and cause death. (22)

* Journal of Sciences reported in 2004, "The Brain damage occurs - days or weeks later - in half of patients with severe cases CO poisoning. (23)

* An article Archives of Neurology 1983 Detailed delayed neurological effects of CO: "The symptoms most common were mental deterioration, urinary or fecal incontinence, impaired gait, and silence. (24)

* Dr. David G. damage Penney, author of several books on the subject of carbon monoxide, lists nervous system caused by exposure to CO: The disorder causes seizures, multiple sclerosis, type disorders, speech, forms of aphasia, the effects on learning, reduced intellectual capacity, Judgement, concentration, the effects of emotion memory, executive functions, multitasking, memory short and long-term system limbic, ataxia and slurred speech. (25)

The inefficiency of the gas chambers

Several accidents have been reported by the media in North Carolina media, demonstrating that gas chambers are not always effective. leakage of carbon monoxide can keep machinery to achieve or maintain a level of lethality of 6% -10% for the animals inside the chamber. The result can be a slow death or simple loss of consciousness and death took it before the animal is placed in a freezer, garbage dumps, landfills or incinerators. Some animals do not die first, either because of insufficient gas levels, the animal's age or health.

Kerry Prichard's Charlotte Observer reported a gas leak chamber in Cabarrus County Animal Control in March 1998. "The gas chamber used for euthanasia of animals was in sight of visitors and, some critics, does not always work well. Critics say the animals killed too slowly or not at all, due to leakage or overcrowding .... The gas chamber has been renovated and offers new homes. "It's a camera is in use, with composite parts. (26)

A September 2003 article by Charlotte Observer reporter Hannah Mitchell revealed problems with a gas chamber used in the Alexander County Animal Control. League volunteers heard a dog barking in a freezer after going through the gas chamber at the shelter and is expected dead. County Chamber of gas used to euthanize animals is sealed with tape. Campbell worried that the long time he improvised putty necessary for animals to die. (27)

"The Charlotte Observer death at the pound" series in June 2003 have the same problem in shelters in the county to another: "In the EU, as much as 10 dogs are gassed together in a steel 4-in-4-m. It replaced room concrete drain, causing animals to survive the gassing. "In the same article, Stanly County Animal Control Officer Randy Palmer describes a situation with a gas chamber in commercial manufacture of news: "After taking them out, some of them are not all down. Sometimes we have to put po (28)

Heather Howard of the Charlotte Observer interviewed officials from Catawba County, in 2004. County Manager Tom Lundy said of the existing room gas in the animal shelter is inefficient and outdated. "Director of Emergency Services David Weldon said a new model will ensure that animals are slaughtered on the device. (29) However, the county has made the switch to euthanasia by injection in 2008.

Doug Clark The Sampson Independent has written a fascinating story about a litter of puppies who survived the gas chamber at the Local 2004 and then adopted, only to die the next day. The attempt to dispel rumors of parvo in the facility, a former employee Dianna Williford admitted: "Attempt to euthanize the puppies half an hour before and what does not. "(30) The only method of euthanasia used by the housing at that time was a chamber of carbon monoxide.

The best known of the gas chamber of canine survival in Davie, North Carolina, a dog was found alive in a trash after being dumped and assumed control of animals killed by Mocksville Davie County in 2005. Local residents Susan and Jeff Armsworthy Garbage is thrown into landfills, where they heard a whistle, which proved to be a puppy crying in a plastic bag in the container. The couple jumped in and rescued the puppy without fear piles of animal carcasses. Author Mike Gunning writes: "Apparently, one of the puppies, while the gas strikes do enough to aspire to be fatal. He seems to have realized while in the trash. (31)

While many shelters have made the transition towards euthanasia in recent years, at least 22 plants Animal Control County North Carolina murder remains unclaimed animals in the rooms Gas in December 2009.

Sources

1. North Carolina Department of Labour Inspection, Animal Control County Sampson March 2004.
2. Fire inspections Reidsville Veterinary Hospital Reidsville Rockingham County Animal Control 2004-2006.
3. North Carolina Department Labour Inspection, Columbus County Animal Control, 2006.
4. North Carolina Department of Labour Inspection, Animal Control Davidson County in May 2006.
5. Letter against the Stokes County Fire Chief Animal Control Supervisor Sarah Shumate January 4, 2007.
6. Department North Carolina Agriculture, Animal Control Montgomery County, for inspection by Shelley Swaim, September 19, 2007.
7. Department North Carolina Charter of Health and Social Services, Division of Epidemiology, Animal Control Inspection Granville County, 21 August 2006.
8. Charter North Carolina Department of Health and Social Services, Division of Epidemiology, animals Randolph County up inspection, April 24, 2007.
9. Statesville News & Record, July 24, 2008, author Bethany Fuller.
10. 2007 Guidelines of the American Veterinary Medical Association on Euthanasia
11. Enquirer Journal article, August 3, 2008, Author Billy Ball.
12. National Institute for Safety and Environmental Health Card International Chemical Safety, carbon monoxide.
13. "Because of injuries to the heart of carbon monoxide Poisoning increases long term risk of death, "Journal of the American Medical Association, January 24, 2006, Timothy D. Henry, MD
14. "The injury the brain responsible for Parkinson's disease after carbon monoxide poisoning, "Young H. Sohn, MD, Yong Jeong, MD, Hyun S. Kim, MD, Joo H. Im, MD, Jin-Soo Kim, MD, Archives of Neurology 2000, 57:1214 -1218.
15. "Carbon monoxide poisoning a public health perspective, U.S. Protection Agency environment.
16. Carbon Monoxide Safety Data Sheet, National Welders Supply.
17. Neuroimaging, cognitive, and neurobehavioral outcomes After carbon monoxide poisoning Ramona O. Hopkins, Fu Lye M. Woon, Brigham Young University
18. "MRI, quantitative MRI, SPECT, and the results neuropsychological result of poisoning from carbon monoxide carbon, "Gale SD, Hopkins RO, Weaver LK, Bigler ED, Booth EJ, Blatter DD, 1999, Brain Injury, 13 (4), pp. 229-243.
19. "Impairment of neuropsychological acute exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide", Yona Amitai, MD; Zlotogorski Zoli, PhD, Vered Golan-Katzav, MA; Anya Wexler, MD; Ditz Gross, Ph.D.
Archives of Neurology. 1998, 55:845-848.
20. "Eliminating carbon monoxide in the blood, "William Kirby Stadie and Martin, Yale University School of Medicine, 1925.
21. "Myocardial injury and long-term mortality following moderate to carbon monoxide poisoning severe "Journal of the American Medical Association, 2006, Christopher R. Henry, BS, Daniel Satran, MD; Bruce Lindgren, MS, Cheryl Adkinson, MD, I. Caren Nicholson, RN, Timothy D. Henry, MD; 295:398-402.
22. Ministry of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
23. "The long term effects of carbon monoxide poisoning carbon reaction autoimmune "Science Daily, Dr. Veena Bhopal, Fisher, Donald, Jie Zhang, and Phyllis Gimotty.
24. "Delayed neurological sequelae monoxide poisoning carbon, "Archives of Neurology, July 1983, is Choi.
25. "Major sites of damage to the nervous system," Dr. G. David Penney.
26. Happy Endings now possible for stray dogs, "Charlotte Observer, March 5, 1998, Author Kerry Prichard.
27. League of animals at the county treasury Alexander Leave resumed control of the House, "Charlotte Observer, September 7, 2003, Author Hannah Mitchell.
28. "Death in the Balance: The animals in the Charlotte area ... "Charlotte Observer, June 29, 2003 the authors Michelle Crouch and Scott Dodd.
29. "Housing needs Catawba animal Official Plan outlines" plots " Charlotte Observer, April 28, 2004, Author Heather Howard.
30. "Anything that can make or inhuman?" Sampson, The Independent, 07 February 2004 author Doug Clark.
31. "Puppy survives attempt euthanasia, Journey to Dump" Davie County Register Company, April 2005 Author Mike Gunning.

The Electronic copies of public records listed above are available from the author free.

About the Author

Michele King is a board member of the North Carolina Coalition for Humane Euthanasia http://NCCHE.com. Members of this organization advocate for an end to gas chambers and other inhumane killing in animal shelters.

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