Inch Metal

October 25, 2008 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

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Is there a trick to assembling the seams, round rigid metal conduit 4 inches?

I am a tinker / HVAC Guy by trade. first thing .... drop the gloves, so you cut tin (Ive got 4 points in one of my fingers as I write this), but it hurts worse if you wear gloves. kneels on the floor with the round tube in front of you and the linking of the right. Help to cope with a wall, so you can push the tube in the wall that makes sewing together. Initiation on the right side (crimped end) and work your way left. inches after a few start the rest will only appear all in place with light pressure knee (towards the wall) and the palms of the hands (pushing down), can help to slap the hose with an open hand. I'd really like to show how do this in a camera or something ..... I've been so long that it is difficult to explain. Hope this helps, possum

What is the bulk metallic glass?

bulk metallic glass, metal, also known as amorphous, appears to have a great future brilliant. Be twice as strong as titanium, ceramic resistant and elastic, and having wear and corrosion resistance makes it attractive for a variety applications. You can even convert into a mold near net shapes.

Conventional metals

In an ordinary metal the metal atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern of crystals or grains of different sizes and shapes of the cooling liquid. Because that metals are not normally take the form of single crystals and weaknesses involved.

The boundaries between grains are the weak points and low voltage high enough and the temperature of grain sliding against each other after metal deformation. In addition, the atoms are often present additional in grains that cause distortions had called dislocations. Dislocations move easily through the metal is under stress, causing pain back. grain boundaries and dislocations in large measure a smaller force compared with metals the theoretical maximum.

Casting metal classics It is also several steps in the manufacture of bulk metallic glass. Retractable metal classics significantly as it cools in the mold of liquid solid and often develop surface roughness. sub-steps are usually required to achieve the final product, as grinding and polishing.

Bulk metallic glass

The structure of metallic glass is very different from that of conventional metals. Instead of organizing themselves into repetitive patterns of grains of metallic glasses, the atoms are "frozen" in a random, disordered structure, similar to ordinary window. It even has a smooth surface like glass. So good, in fact, that the paint does not Although the crystal of metal. This is This amorphous, lacking grain defects, which gives them strength metallic glasses, hardness, strength, elasticity and resistance to wear and corrosion.

First discovered in 1960 by Pol Duwez at Caltech, the metallic glass technique to create a metal merger required subcooling uniform and quickly. Rapidly than 1,000,000 ° C per second! The molten metal reaches its glass transition temperature, without enough time or energy to crystallize and its place in the metallic glass solidifies. Because the material does not heat well, with thin metallic glass strips could be created due to the uniformity and the cooling rate is necessary.

Around 1990, Akihisa Inoue and his team at Tohoku University in Japan has discovered new alloys which may form thick metallic glass at low cooling rates 1 ° C to 100 ° C, provided that three conditions are met:

1) The use of three or more elements of the alloy
2) The atomic size of elements that differ from each other by at least 12 percent
3) Use the elements that have a strong affinity for other

Shortly after, William Johnson and Atakan Peker at Caltech has done the same. The lowest possible cooling rate of thicker materials to be created, up to four inches. These coarse materials are known as bulk metallic glass (BMG).

Currently available Bulk metallic glasses are malleable at about 400 ° C, compared to over 1000 ° C for steel. This allows the material to be Similar to polymers, the high volume production until the launch of a thickness of four inches. The material has low shrinkage during solidification and therefore can not be converted into web forms with almost precision microphone. The smooth and shiny eliminates secondary finishing processes. Scalpels glass bulk metal mold with high and ready for use.

Some disadvantages

As with any material, BMG can not do everything for all applications. Your ability to manufacture plastic, because it also means that can be used in applications with high temperature above 260 ° C, as it becomes soft and weak. Pure bulk metallic glasses are also cyclic fatigue of repeated stress. Grace to its high elasticity and low plasticity, catastrophic failure occurs after only a small amount of plastic deformation.

BMG composite

New developments in composite materials BMG help reduce the limitations of matter. In a compound BMG BMG is the matrix crystalline phase and a ductile material strengthening. The reinforcement material may be added, such as metal or ceramic fibers, or created by internal precipitation ductile dendrites BMG, yielding partial crystallinity. These compounds combine the ductility, toughness and plasticity Metals conventional high BMG pure resistance.


BMGS are planned for or are currently used in a wide variety of applications including: - Industrial floors for use and a better resistance to corrosion - To replace depleted uranium Kinetic energy penetrators for military personnel. - The mobile phone cases - Scalpels - Sporting goods such as bats and tennis rackets - Jewelry

The Agency for Defense Advanced Research Projects (DARPA) funds a three-year structural amorphous metal (SAM). This program is to demonstrate the feasibility of BMG structural applications. Specific applications are under investigation ", resistant to corrosion, reducing the mass of magnetic material of the hull, moderate temperature, light alloys for all aircraft and rocket propulsion and machinery for components of resistance by land, sea and air vehicles. "

United States Patent Status

In considering several patents and class codes of amorphous metals show that the patent U.S. codes classification of these materials are:

148/304 - amorphous archival material which has no regular crystalline structure, but rather a series of non-crystalline rather like glass.

148/403 - amorphous or glassy Archives which has no regular crystalline structure, but has a number of areas not like a crystal glass.

148/561 - Passing through an amorphous state or treating or producing an amorphous metal or alloy: process by which a metal or metal alloy having no regular crystalline structure or periodicity (for example, amorphous) in the quantities produced or handled by definition a process class or a metal or metal alloy through a physical condition that has no regular crystalline structure or periodicity during the processing of metal or metal alloy.

On the orientation examined patents assigned to these codes that have been granted during the period between 1987 and 2003. Finally, patented compare the codes of the upper class above in terms of number of patents issued from 1987 to 2003.

Top '87 '03 BMG patent holders to

55 patents - YKK Corp.
43 patents - Honeywell
33 patents - and Tsuyoshi Masumoto Unitika Ltd.
26 patents - Akihisa Inoue
15 patents - Alps Electric Co.
14 patents - Koji Hashimoto
13 patents - California Institute of Technology
13 Patents - Nippon Steel Corp.
11 Patents - Hitachi Ltd.
11 patents - Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba

Orientation A method used to compare holders patent is to calculate an index of technology called Influence. Influence of technology patents is often a transferee of the last five years (In this case, 1998-2002) refers to patents published in the year of comparison (in this case 2003). Influence of technology A value of 1 represents average. This shows how evolution former owner of a patent for technology affect the current development. This analysis determined that the guideline work at Caltech has been the influence of technology influences their value is 5.06, while the closest value is only 1.46, held by Alps Electric.

Applied Science is another calculation used to compare the patent holders. This is the average number of references Non-patent cited by the patentee of a patent, such as items borrowed from scientific journals, conference proceedings, etc. This gives an indication that companies are working on the cutting edge. Again, Caltech is a leader, with a value of 7.3 in applied sciences. This is logical since given that Caltech is known for being one of the leaders in developing this technology. As mentioned above, the metallic glass was discovered at Caltech.

An analysis of patent holders and inventors revealed that Akihisa Inoue has done considerable work and collaboration. He is listed as an inventor or the spouse of a little over 60 patents, with about 120 Japanese researchers others. All work is done using the following organizations of Japan, and only against the United States Patent. - Tsuyoshi Masumoto and Unitika, limited - Teikoku Piston Ring Company Limited - Alps Electric Co., Ltd. - YKK Corporation - Honda Motor Co., Ltd. - Yamaha Corporation - Japan Science and Technology Corporation - Unitika Ltd. - Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Industry - Research Society for the Development of Japan - Japan Metals & Chemicals Co., Ltd. - Sumitomo Rubber, Ltd. - Mitsubishi Materials Corporation

In fact, Inoue led a five-year project funded by the Japanese government (Inoue supercooled liquid glass project), which reported the development better BMG alloy containing copper with a tensile strength of more than 2 GPa. Inoue is currently conducting a five-year project funded by the Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

Although Inoue made the larger work in terms of U.S. patents the technology of amorphous and crystalline metals, the work group at Caltech William Johnson seems to have a greater impact on the overall body of work in patents U.S. in recent years.

About the Author

Brian Reuter is Director of Product Realization at Guideline, Inc. Guideline provides research,
product realization
expert witness and consulting
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