Memories Consultant Crop

December 21, 2006 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

At Die Cut Machines your source for Die Cutting Machines and Crafting Supplies we hope the Memories Consultant Crop products and information here meets your needs.

User-Agent error.  If you see this error message, please e-mail us!
May I have some help with my scrapbooking (crop) area?

I have almost no room to have scrapbooking supplies. Do you have any idea how I might store stuff? Or how I might store layouts that I'm in the middle of but don't have time right now...

I have the same problem, I have to get out all my stuff only to put it all back when I need the table for dinner!!

I have a 12 x 12 box that I store my pages in progress in. I get the photos I want, select a background sheet and then all the stickers and embellishments I want to go with it and put them in the box. I put a blank sheet on top and do the next set of photos in the same way. Then my box has sheet sets that are ready to go. I grab my box and create the page and since I chose the paper and stuff last time, it goes quickly. It also stores nicely!

(The pages all lie flat and the don't get mixed in with each other either.)

I got my box from Creative Memories (you buy through a consultant) but you probably can find a similar thing at the craft/scrapbook store:

Good luck.

Sludge disposal â € "the problems of application-environment â €" Overview

Sewage sludge disposal problems â € "Implementation € LAND ENVIRONMENT-A AN OVERVIEW

Md. Wasim Aktar

Department of Laboratory waste chemicals pesticides Agriculture
Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal, India

1. Introduction
Most wastewater treatment processes produce sludge which must be eliminated. conventional plants for secondary treatment of sewage sludge typically generate a primary phase in the primary settling and secondary treatment of sedimentation of organic sludge final after the biological process. The characteristics of secondary sludge vary with the type of biological processes, and often mixed with primary sludge before treatment and disposal. About half of the operating costs of wastewater treatment in Central Secondary may be associated with treatment and sludge disposal. Land application of sewage sludge, raw or processed can significantly reduce component cost of disposal of sludge treatment of wastewater and provide much of the nitrogen and phosphorus from many cultures. Rarely networks urban sewage plants that transport domestic wastewater treatment, industrial effluents and runoff from roads and other paved areas are often discharged into sewers. Thus, the sludge The wastewater also contain organic waste, the remains of many pollutants used in our society modern. Some of these chemicals may be phytotoxic and some are toxic to humans and / or animals so it is necessary to control Soil concentrations of potentially toxic elements (EFA) and the rate of application in the field. The health risk of chemicals in the sewage sludge spread on land has been reviewed by Dean and Suess1
Sewage sludge also contain pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa, with other helminths that could lead to potential health risks to humans, animals and plants. A WHO (1981) Report on the risk to health of microbes in sewage sludge spread on land and salmonella Taenia as giving rise to concern. The number of parasites and pathogens in sludge can be significantly reduced before application to the land for sludge treatment methods and the potential risk to health is further reduced the effects of climate, soil micro-organisms and time after sludge on the ground. However, in the case of certain crops, limits planting, grazing and harvesting are required.
In addition to the elements of concern, sewage sludge also contains useful levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. The availability of phosphorus in the year of application is approximately 50% and is independent of any treatment of sludge before. nitrogen availability is more dependent on sludge treatment, sludge and liquid nitrogen releasing untreated dewatered sludge treated slowly with benefits for crops that are being made for a relatively long period. anaerobic liquid digested sludge has a high content of ammonia nitrogen that is readily available to plants and can be particularly beneficial to grassland. Organic matter in sludge can improve the water holding capacity and structure of some soils, especially when applied the form of dewatered sludge cake.
2. What is the mud?
Waste, sludge, septic waste, wastewater, a byproduct of processing wastewater, compost: there are many names for the sludge and sludge products. The mandate of a € € œsludgeâ is used as the most people: the solid at times, sometimes fluid materials from sewage plants and waste used as fertilizer on fields in the gravel pits, in the woodlands and across the state. Sludge AA rated œClass € € if you have been treated to reduce germs to background levels (Normally present in the soil) and â € Bâ € œClass if you have been treated for microbes are reduced by 90%.
3. Composition sewage sludge
The nature of sewage sludge depends on the process of wastewater treatment and source of wastewater. In general it contains toxic and nontoxic organic waste. Of the two, non-toxic compounds are more common than all materials, including vegetable and animal, including proteins, amino acids, sugars and fats. toxic organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to organochlorine pesticides, monocyclic aromatic, chlorinated benzenes, aromatic amines and alkyl, polychlorinated dioxins, phenols, etc. In addition to these organic sludge-waste also contains traces of many pollutants such as copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, chromium, selenium, some of these chemicals can be phytotoxic and some are toxic to humans and / or animals, it is necessary to control the concentrations of elements in soil and potentially toxic application rates. Sewage sludge also contain pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa, with other helminths that may give rise to potential risks health of humans, animals and plants. In addition to the components of sewage sludge also contains useful public concerns N, P and organic matter. Each component of the mud has its own impact on the environment, to take into account when choosing the route of evacuation.

4. Sludge Treatment
Increasing urbanization and industrialization have led to a dramatic increase in the volume of wastewater produced in worldwide. stage of wastewater treatment focuses on the various pollutants (90%) in sewage sludge that typically contains between 1% and 2% weight of solids. The wastewater treatment typically involves the following process for sludge treatment for the production of Finished adapted for use or disposal:

methods of sludge treatment
Process Description

pasteurization sludge at least 30 minutes at 70 º C or a minimum of 4 hours at 55 º C a (or through appropriate conditions), followed in all cases by primary mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

mesophilic anaerobic digestion days average retention period of at least 12 days of digestion primary in a temperature range of 35 ° C ± 3 º C or 20 º -25 digestion Atleast primary temperature range C ± 3 ° C, followed in each case by a secondary phase which provides a mean retention period of at least 14 days.

Thermophilic aerobic digestion period average retention at least 7 days digestion. All sludge is subjected to a minimum of 55 º C for a period of at least 4 hours.

Composting compost should be stored at -40 º C for at least 5 days and 4 hours for this period of at least 55 º C in the body of the battery followed by a period mature enough to ensure that the composting process is complete reaction.

Cal stabilization of the slurries more lime to raise the pH to 12.0 and more than sufficient to ensure that the pH is below 12 for at least 2 hours. The sludge can be used directly.

Liquid Storage Storage of untreated liquid sludge for a minimum period of 3 months.

Dehydration and storage of untreated sludge conditioned with lime or other coagulants followed by dewatering and cake storage for a minimum period of 3 months. If the sludge has been subjected to the teaching primary mesophilic anaerobic digestion of storage for a minimum of 14 days.

5. agricultural application
The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer high â € œ â € œ began in earnest after 1988 ban sewage sludge dumping in the Wed When the Ocean Dumping Ban Act 1988 came into force, municipalities and Govts. left with a new problem â € "how rid of tons of sludge produced each day. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has stepped forward with a plan â € € œsolveâ this problem by promoting sludge (sometimes called â € ~ € ™ biosolids, a lasting relationship Target is used interchangeably by the EPA with the term Technical œsewage € â € sludge) as fertilizer to spread on the ground â € "When people live, work and play. Although the viscous, black cake not add organic matter and fertilizer for poor soil, making them productive and profitable major constraints by the factors, including pathogens, heavy metals, toxic organic compounds. Therefore, the EPA plan has chemical goods toxic air, water, soil, crops and in us. So to call sludge fertilizer € â € œ equivalent to calling soup œfoodâ € â € which, although it contains some meat and vegetables, also contain lead, arsenic or less, and perhaps hundreds or thousands of other toxic organic and inorganic whose impact varies carcinogenic teratogenic malformation congenital (induction). â € œMost people want a simple answer, it is good or bad. The answer is not so simple. It is not completely without risk, but has advantages. Like driving a € Cara, Sanden said.

The benefits of sewage sludge on agricultural land
â € ¢ valuable agricultural nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur can be returned to the earth
â € ¢ levels of soil organic matter increased by 12% â € "15%
â € ¢ The groundwater and surface water quality are maintained
â € ¢ Reduced increase in bulk density and porosity no capillary
â € ¢ Improve the aggregation soil particles
â € ¢ No significant health or nuisance problems are

6. Sludge problem
The sludge contains measurable quantities of pollutants such as heavy metals, dioxins and other toxic chemicals. The sludge also contain pathogens - the seeds of man, bacteria, viruses and parasites. Sludge and smells: the smell of the mud is more than just a nuisance but a threat to public health, which was linked to respiratory problems and death. The spreading of sludge distributed pollutants from large cities to remote rural areas where where they were originally produced. State and federal agencies of various countries to regulate the distribution of the mud, but the regulation this waste is difficult and problematic. Many scientists agree that the rules of current implementation of the land does not protect human health, agricultural productivity, environmental or environment. Lack of funding to provide adequate supervision and regulatory nature of the authorization quality of sewage sludge spread known to occur on our land.
Problems with the sludge are:
? The sludge containing metals heavy, toxic chemicals and pathogens.
? The testing and regulation of sludge is insufficient and problematic.
? odors from sludge are a threat to public health and quality of life decline.

7. The problem with mud
7.1. How toxic sludge fertilizer
In societies traditional agriculture, human waste is often used to enrich the soil. The industrial revolution has led to increased urbanization and the need for cities to build sewer systems to eliminate early human waste. Pipes and canals have been built dump sewage directly into our lakes, rivers and oceans. As the industry grew plants in the world has begun to use these primitive sewage systems dispose of their waste. This practice continued well in the 20th century, when the industry began to make extensive use of toxic chemicals. Use the local sewer system as a toxic waste dump is an easy solution to their problems disposal and was more cheaper than treating their waste on the site. The wastewater charge of toxic chemicals has created the public health and environmental disasters in the world: rivers caught fire, the public drinking water supplies were contaminated, and waste deposited on our beaches. public protest against the increasing disaster led to the enactment of the federal Clean Water in 1972. This law establishes standards for water quality at national level and has provided money to communities to improve sewerage systems and construction of wastewater treatment. Unfortunately, instead of addressing the root of the problem is to stop using Industrial and disposal of toxic chemicals, and not the act regulated the amount of pollution from large industries could release sewer.
In late 1970, extensive systems of wastewater were built across the country. treatment plants water have been constructed to separate the waste water solid waste, and after natural and chemical treatment, the return water in the environment, free of human waste. Unfortunately, they were not built for the treatment of toxic chemical waste. Although these treatment systems and wastewater treatment plants to improve the level of public health and water quality, have a defect ironic. The process produces a cleaner water, but also creates a toxic byproduct: the mud. In fact, the Clean Water Act defines rightly, the sludge as a pollutant. For Like all waste sludge must be disposed of in some way. What to do with the sludge was a source controversy for the past three decades in the world. During the 1970s and 80s, the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates strict application of sewage sludge land, effectively banning large part of the waste is used on farmland. treatment wastewater facilities could have sludge in one of three ways: by sending to landfill, by incineration, or immersion of 100 miles offshore in the ocean.2
Discards ultimately created large areas in the Dead Sea. In response to public concerns, Congress adopted the law on ocean dumping, which prohibits the dumping of sludge on sludge disposal 1992.3 was then largely limited to landfill and incineration has become costly for the plant wastewater treatment. municipal wastewater treatment pressure on EPA to relax their standards for land application of sewage sludge in agricultural fields. After a series of rewrites proposed regulations EPA, companies marketing companies and municipal water treatment of sewage sludge treatment succeeded in easing limits of toxins in land application of sludge. Once considered as a hazardous waste is a fertilizer? By classifying the sludge as fertilizer, was exempt from various waste management regulations.
7.2. Marketing of toxic sludge
Municipal facilities for water treatment will depend on the corridors of corporate sludge to dispose of their sludge. To dispose of these private companies to convince farmers and landowners in the country spreading of sludge on his fields as a nutritional supplement for their crops. The mud is marketed to homeowners and consumers in two ways different. The first and most obvious, is offering free sludge. Convincing individual owners sludge is € â € œagronomic benefit in his country, agents are finding sites for disposal of sludge and extremely cheap to other sludge otherwise, should be sent to landfills or incinerators cost about $ 70 ton.4
Companies rely on the fact that everybody wins: the processing plants have an option of sales at low prices for their sludge, giving taxpayers a break, and owners free nutrients for their fields. As a specific result, stand with Brokers the cost of disposal of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. The corridors and filth avoid any potential liability, which is now took the farmer or owner. The second form is sold sludge by composting or palletizing. Then it can be sold or given as compost or fertilizer. Given the weakening of the rules of sludge in the 1980s, people from around the world have been taken to keep the sludge spreading on the fields and land farming communities. Activists who fight against sludge are formidable opponents. plants and water treatment sludge agents have formed groups to trade, such as New England and the residual biosolids Association (NEBRA). Nebra, in turn, is part of a larger and more powerful: the National Association biosolids, which is a coalition of groups such as EPA and the Water Environment Federation, whose main responsibility is to change the perception of a € € œpublic on the spread of sludge.
7.3. Toxic Sludge secrets
Sludge applied land law is required to have toxic levels below certain limits and is treated with lime to reduce levels of pathogens. However, World sludge is completely free of toxic chemicals or pathogens. In fact, after the issue of Class B sludge still contains a significant amount of pathogens5.
7.4. Toxic Sludge
A. Heavy metals
All the mud in the world contain heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium and metals are persistent zinc.6 € "That is, who do not break down not in the environment and thus accumulate over time. As the states of Cornell Cooperative Extension, heavy metals, â € œmost remain in the soil for long periods of time ranging from several decades in many heavy metals in the centuries.â € sludge on the ground so become permanent additions to the total amount in the soil. Even very small amounts of heavy metals in sludge, therefore, are dangerous.7 levels high arsenic in food or water can be fatal. Cadmium, chromium, nickel and selenium has been linked to cancer. Cadmium has also been linked to kidney problems, miscarriage and stillbirth. Copper, nickel and zinc are known to cause problems growth in cultures. Children exposed to lead may develop behavioral and learning problems. Exposure to mercury at times Key in the development of the fetus may cause learning disabilities and neurological disorders. Molybdenum accumulates grass cattle food ingested in excess, can cause anemia, diarrhea, and growth problems.8 These metals can be absorbed by plants that grow in the mud and re-enter the human food chain through animal feed. These metals can leach into groundwater. very acid soils, like those found in Maine, may exacerbate heavy metals leaching.9

B. Pathogens: bacteria, viruses and parasites
The mud, by its very nature, contains pathogens of human origin: germs like bacteria, viruses and parasites. Whereas exposure heavy metals can cause problems over time, exposure to these germs is more serious and can cause health problems almost immediately. Due to the extremely large number of pathogens that exist in the world, it is impossible to sludge tested all types of pathogens. Some common pathogens in sludge bacteria E-coli and salmonella, hepatitis A, and parasitic worms. Pathogens can cause intestinal problems, other serious illnesses and death. Spreading of sludge can be treated to eliminate pathogens. By composting the sludge, for example, levels of pathogens can be reduced significantly. Unfortunately, federal laws and allow state â € Bâ € œClass sludge, which has not been treated with more rigorous methods of reducing pathogen spread. In other words, the sludge is spread pathogens live in the entire state. Unfortunately for residents and workers in northern New England, cloudy and humid promote the growth of pathogens. The researchers found that pathogens can survive in mud for weeks, months or years after treatment processes of reduction.
Humans can be exposed to pathogens in the sludge in several ways. You might have eaten plant pathogens into them. The children can accidentally access sludge to a field and were exposed to germs. Pathogens can also be spread by domestic animals or wildlife, including deer, walking through a field of mud.

C. Dioxin: â € œThe € Darth Vader of chemicals
Dioxins are unwanted by-product of processes involving chemical chlorine. According to the EPA, the spreading of sludge is the largest distributor of land nationally.10 Dioxin Dioxin is a known carcinogen, and has been linked to reproductive problems, genetic disorders, and endometriosis. Scientific evidence indicates that there no safe level of exposure dioxin.11 As an expert in her well-known dioxin, dioxin is â € œ Darth Vader of chemicals, â € because you can not see or taste, but it is deadly. The source of dioxin contamination in the sludge is not known. Can be discharged into the sewer system by industrial sources and residential unknown. grazing dairy sludge on land animals can ingest the dioxin chemical then enter into breast milk and meat.
7.5. What Dona € ™ t know can hurt us
The Federal Environmental Protection Agency estimates there are 70,000 synthetic (not natural) chemicals. Without However, only 2% of these chemicals have been fully tested. In fact, even the results of toxicity the most basic verification can be found in the public record of nearly 75% of the most used these chemicals. How these chemicals on human health and how they interact with each other in the environment (â € € œsynergistic their effects) are not always known. Nevertheless, the industry is the ratio of the necessary approval management fee of 1% of these chemicals into rivers and sewers. While thousands of houses and industries output of chemicals, sludge World regularly tested for heavy metals and, in some cases evidence of dioxins and toxic pesticides.

8. Source of toxic chemicals
Sludge containing metals heavy and other contaminants from homes and industry because the use and release of too many toxic chemicals. The sources of pollutants in sludges are many, depending on the specific treatment facility and the community it serves. The sources of pollution include industrial discharges, spills small businesses, new hospitals, garbage, the leachate from landfills and Superfund sites, including landfill waste nuclear and water and sewage discharged into municipal whole.12Everything as a drain that leads to a treatment plant water could become a part of sludge the plant produces. If a worker in an industrial plant accidentally discharge of toxic chemicals in the sink rather than produce a safe, these chemicals can be found in the mud. Similarly, if a gardener rinsed bottle containing products toxic pesticides in the sink, toxic pesticides could find their way into the sludge.
8.1. Industrial Risks
As indicated above, many chemicals used by industry have not been properly tested and are not regulated or reported. In addition, even in the facilities safer, accidents and toxic chemicals can be released into the waste stream. requires treatment plants Global Water for working with large industries to reduce and control their waste discharge. This â € € œpretreatment Process requires companies to upload large amounts of waste into the sewage system or use a large quantity of chemicals which could affect the operation of the sewer system. Unfortunately, once the companies are releasing heavy metals and other toxins in the sewer system, there is no process to remove these chemicals from the sludge. In addition, all industries in the country to meet the 33 pounds of hazardous waste each months on the plant wastewater, without penalty or Reporting.13
8.2. Dangers of Small Business
Many small businesses are not regulated by toxic emissions. Not included in the pretreatment process. While the auto repair shops, dentist offices, photo developers, cleaning Dry, and other small businesses can not individually release a large quantity of toxic chemicals, as contributing to all chemicals in the sludge can be dangerous.
8.3. Hospital Risk
All hospitals are required to dispose of toxic chemicals and biological risks in a form approved by the State. However, accidents happen: from a broken mercury hermometer other pathogens of man washing in the sink, hospitals can contaminate sludge.
8.4. Water pollution and municipal sewage
Many cities have water and sewer lead and copper. metals lead, copper and sometimes seep into the waste stream and sludge contamination. Contaminated sludge may also occur if a city € ™ s dam is contaminated with pesticides and other chemicals whose tests are not necessary.
8.5. Household Hazards
Pesticides (including flea shampoos), heavy cleaning and hair coloring products, which contain toxic chemicals products abound. Each of these chemicals released into sewers can be spread over a farm field or forest.

9. Rules sludge
It is almost impossible to know the exact level of toxic materials in each batch of mud, because what is free in the waste stream varies from day day. Although the treatment plant treated sewage waste on the site for several days, lots of mud tested before leaving the factory. In addition, because of the economy that concerns health protection, generators sludge analyzed more frequently. For example, waste is often only tested for dioxin twice a year because of the cost of the test. A worker may accidentally discharge of pesticides in a sink storm drain, or illegally or someone can dump more toxic chemicals into sewers, and no matter how strict regulations in law books, the test may miss the momentum of pollutants. Regulations and the test can not guarantee the safety of chemicals in sludge household toxic industrial deleted.

10. effects of sludge
â € œTemporary an unpleasant odor are needed in the exercise of € 14 Manure agriculture.â sludge as smells dissipates € â € Days œwithin several lengths ahead despite propaganda industry, studies have shown that odors from the sludge is more than just a nuisance, but they are a threat to health public. noxious gases, called organic amines are developed from chemical reactions occurring in the sludge. These gases are released when the pH of sludge is above 10, as if the lime is added. Studies suggest that the smell of the mud can cause health problems in humans as as 1600 feet site.15A a study by a former EPA regulator related odors sludge â € sludge œsevere irritation to mucous membranes followed by respiratory infections € populations residing near a site of sludge. Irritation eyes, throat and pathogens in sludge skin infection most likely. The study was conducted after the death of a man suffering from difficulties in New Hampshire breathing in the vicinity of a mud site.16 residents near sludge sites are not the only victims of the smell of the mud. Symptoms associated with organic amine poisoning are common among workers in the plant waste treatment and sludge haul drivers.
10.1. Deaths due to sludge
At least two deaths have been associated with the spread of sludge. In October 1994, an eleven-year-old named Tony Behun, was biking near his home land Osceola Mills, Pennsylvania. Unwittingly, the boy crossed a muddy field in Class B. She returned covered with dust and dirt. Two days later, developed a sore throat, headache, and a boil on his left arm. Brenda Robertson, his mother took doctor, who prescribed antibiotics flu. The next day, Tony has trouble breathing. He died after being transported by helicopter a hospital in Pittsburgh. The final diagnosis was that Tony died of a bacterial infection. How your child gets the infection is still a mystery Brenda Robertson for only five years later, when read in connection with an investigation into the death of his son by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Without consulting Brenda, the State has issued a report concluding that Tony died of a bee sting and the Class B sludge is spread on the property which have been mounted.
Another death occurred sludge in Greenland, New Hampshire. In late October 1995, the Marshall family's otherwise quiet life tragically interrupted. The sludge is dumped on land in rural areas. This was the beginning residents € ™ problems. On Halloween, Joanne Marshall ran home from work to take your child trick-or-treat. A Home and jumped from his car, which was a € œgreeted for this smell, it took his breath. â € 17 The Marshall Islands and its neighbors have begun to suffer from nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, headaches, flu-like symptoms, slowed reflexes and breathing problems.
10.2. The Environmental Assessment and to address some of them:
Recycling sewage sludge on agricultural land for the supply of essential nutrients and plant organic matter it contains, seems a reasonable method and rational management of a material that otherwise would have otherwise not beneficial. But sludge contains inorganic, organic contaminants and biological and the utmost care, management is required to avoid environmental problems. Problems listed in the table below. application of sewage sludge can reduce the soil pH important. This can be avoided if the soil pH is increased by the application of lime or if the application rate of sludge are limited in some way.
The "no". different kinds of bacteria in sludge varies. In general one count of coliform total of 10 to 10 can be found per gram dry weight., while fecal coliforms are usually 10 to 10 p. gram dry weight. The pathogen is reduced to levels which may pose a threat to public health and the environment conditions of use specified procedures to significantly reduce pathogens, such as digestion, drying, heating, high pH or the equivalent are the most commonly used.
To dispose of sludge oral contraceptives, mainly from two approaches are not ar â € "physical, chemical and microbiological processes that affect the high temperature oxidation (incineration) or reductive dechlorination (pyrolysis in an atmosphere of hydrogen). To address possible level of risk concentrations in soil and sludge mixture presticide be combined less than 1.25 mg / kg dry weight.

risks to the environment from the impact and benefits for the evaluation of the recycling of sludge sewage on farmland (B = beneficial effect, L = low risk, P = possible risk NA = Not applicable.)
parameters environm ental-pathogenic nitrogenous organic pollutants PTE organic phosphorus
Health Human LPLBBB
Crop yields LLLBBB
Animal health LLLBBB
Water quality at low LLLLLP
quality of surface water LLLPPB
Air Quality LLLP NA NA
Soil fertility PLLBBB
Natural ecosystems PPPPBL

11. Sludge Rules
The mud, by its very nature, is difficult to regulate. Depending on what chemicals are released into the sewer minute variety, the toxicity of the state of the sludge may vary Day by day, minute by minute. Settlement of sludge does not adequately protect public health and the environment environment.
11.1. Regulation problems:
â € ¢ are lower pollution standards;
â € ¢ Allow for leisure sludge containing pathogens living;
â € ¢ discourage municipalities to be cautious and targeted public health by not allowing to do more strict rules that the state € ™ s, and
â € ¢ Citizens € ™ voices marginalized in the process and industry sludge has better access to state regulators that the average citizen.

11.2. Standards for heavy metals (ppm)
Heavy Metal Denmark Netherlands Norway Sweden Finland EU
Arsenic 25 N / AN / AN / AN 0.15 / AN / A
Cadmium 0.8 2.0 1.5 5 or 10 * 2.5 20 1.25
Chrome 100 100 N / AN 900 75 100 / A
Copper 1000 600 N / A 800 75 1000 1000
Lead 120 100 100 900 100 80 750
Mercury 0.8 2.5 1 8 0.75 3 16
Nickel 30 50 100 200 30 50 300
Zinc 4000 800 1500 2500 300 800 2500

* Source: Harrison, et al. 1999 7
11.3. Mud vs. natural soil

Heavy Metal Sludge average (ppm) of natural resources soil (ppm) times higher than the natural soil
Arsenic 5.6 7.4 1.3
Cadmium 2.4 0.37 6.4
Copper 23.3 16.6 388.0
Chromium 30 1.1 33.3
Lead 61.5 3.6 17
0003 Mercury 400 1.2
Molybdenum 7.5 0.79 9.4
Nickel 1.2 18 22.8
Selenium 2.6 5.7 0.45
Zinc 468.5 68.5 6.8

11.4. The standard values for organic compounds

Compounds of sludge concentration
HAP 1-10 mg. / Kg
100a alkylphenols € "3000 mg. / Kg
PCBs from 1 to 20 mg. / Kg
Poly-p low chlorinated dioxins dibenzo organochlorine pesticides monocyclic aromatic amines, and chlorinated benzenes, alkyl 0 â € "1mg./Kg.
Phenols 0 â € "5mg./Kg.

12. The solution of the mud
If the distribution of our communities sludge is dangerous, where to go? What should we do with this waste? The real question is, how can we eliminate the spread of toxic pollutants in our country and how we can eliminate these contaminants from our treatment plant water so that the waste of human waste becomes a product truly useful and safe? Because the sludge contains toxic chemicals and other pollutants, the best solution to our problem of sludge reduction of these pollutants at the source. By dramatically reducing and eliminating industrial pollutants and toxic chemicals that can be home a big cut levels of chemicals in sludge. Until the goal long-term elimination of the use and disposal of toxic chemicals is achieved, the State must:

1. Prohibit the use of sludge containing industrial waste.
2. Demand the strictest level of pathogen reduction.
3. Develop and build and test the limits of toxic sludge.
4. allow municipalities to enact ordinances that are stricter than state regulations € ™ s at the town meeting or voting process throughout the city.
5. Maintain pH monitoring long-term sludge metal sites.

In addition to the protections in the state, municipalities must also play their own protection through strict control orders sludge. It is After all, local communities are most threatened by the spread of sludge.
13. Sludge disposal
Sludge disposal is a problem World and a variety of escape routes have been taken as directed by local conditions. The final resting place of sludge should be on earth air or water. The removal of sludge used largly air high temperature incineration or pyrolysis. Although this reduction is sufficient to â € € œstabiliseâ sludge remains a large volume for disposal. The elimination of sewage sludge into the sea in the now banned because of their perceived impact on the environment. The main methods of sludge disposal facilities used by the wastewater treatment are the transfer or sale of impoundment used for municipal gardens, used for growing grass instant application. The remaining sludge is stored or dump.

Provision and implementation of sludge € ™ s should involve the following

1. The application must contain a summary Crop Type on the proposed site, the method of application of sewage sludge, and a calendar spread. The application must also include analysis of soil nutrients representative for the site.
2. The sludge must provide € â € œagronomic advantage for crops grown on the land - which means that the generator must demonstrate that the site needs of food provided by the mud. The farms that use sludge are required to have helped develop a nutrient management plan while managing agricultural nutrients. This plan is the foundation of our determination that the elements Nutrients are needed in the farm.19
3. The application must demonstrate that â € œthe state water will protected.â € In practice, regulators State assumes that state waters will be protected as long as certain setbacks and requirements for the dissemination of the application.

4. To this end, the sludge can be spread when the ground is frozen, snow cover, and water saved. The sludge can be spread on land which promotes the growth of plants that need water, such as wetlands, marshes and others.
5. The soil in the mud of a proposed site must have a layer Land of six inches and a minimum depth of rock 10 inches for perennial crops (such as hay) and 20 inches for row crops (like corn).
6. For Class B sludge, the diffusion can take place within 25 feet of waterways in the area include gorges, rivers and wetlands. Sites sludge can be located within 75 feet of a river, perennial stream, or large pond.
7. The application must include a statement as to if the site is not located in or near a protected natural resource, a sensitive area, and / or directly to the pool of water.
8. The producer must demonstrate that the activity of sludge spread comply with traffic regulations for the site. This rule is intended to be filled if the spread of the activity of sludge will result in 16 or fewer vehicle trips day.20
9. The application must include a plan for odor control specific site to prevent odors on adjacent properties. It is assumed that the quality of odor and air pollution standards are met on the site if the site is 300 feet from occupied buildings, where a specific odor control plan.21 site
10. The application must demonstrate that the mud is € â € Oenone dangerous. To this end, the application must include an analysis of heavy metals in sludge. If the generator € ™ sludge contains heavy metals compared to control levels, then the application must include sampling and monitoring, and show that the highest concentration of heavy metals in soil is not exceeded.

11. The application must also include an analysis of dioxins in sludge. If a generator of sludge containing 27 parts per trillion of dioxin, the application must include a statement signed by the generator, the owner and operator recognizes dioxin in sludge spreading.
The statement must also include an agreement with the following conditions:
? The site been tested for dioxin in the 3 months after the release of final sludge.
? If the soil on the site contains 27 parts per trillion of dioxin, then the animals human consumption can not graze in the area, crops for human consumption can be grown on the site, and writing the site should record this information.

12. The application must also include a sampling: frequency and how the sludge tested for heavy metals and other toxins.22
13. The sludge will be spread over at least 15 inches above the surface of groundwater. locally grown food crops with harvested parts touching the ground will not be harvested for 14 months after the last sludge spreading.
14. If the sludge remains in the soil for four months or more before incorporation into the soil, food crops that grow can be harvested at least 20 months after the last application of sludge.
15. cultures food, fiber and grow plants on the site but have not reaped the parties that could affect the sludge can not be harvested for at least 30 days after the last sludge spreading.
16. Domestic animals can not graze on the land for at least 30 days after the last spreading sludge.
17. Turf grown on the site can not be collected for one year after the last sludge

18. The application must contain site maps, including a topographical map, a sketch of the place, on a tax plan, the soil map (U.S. Department of Agriculture), sand and gravel aquifer map and a map of flood zones.
19. Site development should include all the setbacks and buffers are incorporated and the location roads on the site and adjacent wells and buildings. Topographic maps are used to determine the slopes on the site. The soil, sand and gravel aquifer and floodplain maps are used to determine if the site is suitable for the application of regulations for land application of sludge activities.23

14. Conclusion and Recommendation
14.1. Policy recommendations

? Prohibit industrial waste sludges to implement OUT. The best way to ensure that our rural land is protected from industrial pollution is to prohibit the use of sludge containing these toxins.

? Require land to spread sewage sludge subjected to the method of pathogen reduction stringent available. Sludge viruses, bacteria, parasites and above baseline levels should not be performed.
? Develop and strengthen the parameters of the mud of the evidence. The sludge must be tested more often for more contaminants. To better protect public health and the environment, levels of pollutants should not be allowed solely on the basis of toxicology, but also by natural background levels.
? allow municipalities to enact ordinances that are stricter than the State at a town meeting or a vote in all of the city. People who are most affected by the sludge sites are local residents. It is important to have a voice in decisions that affect their community.
? Maintain long-term site sludge. generators sludge should be responsible for testing the pH of the mud all application sites, either active or closed, and covering the cost of lime (or other changes) to maintain Insurance soil pH. All the main activities of the volume of sludge should be recorded in the facts so that future buyers are aware of the use previous ownership.

15.2. Recommendation for municipalities
â € ¢ The mud is a particularly important issue for municipalities to monitor: they are local residents who have the most to lose from the threat of sludge.
â € ¢ In the municipalities that are home processing plant wastewater, local residents, municipal officials and facility managers can work together to implement recommendations contained in the statement above the local level.
â € ¢ All peoples have the power to prohibit the use of sludge, sludge or material (eg compost) municipal property.
â € ¢ The municipalities can also pass the strict enforcement orders sludge. Although the state preempts local control over the establishment of strict rules, there are several ways cities can discourage the spread of mud.

15.3. What concerned citizens can do?
Citizens can protect themselves and their community against the dangers of sludge work proactively to reform the mud. Depending on the needs of the community, people can reform the rules of the sludge through the participation municipal authorities, public health and state and local environmental groups.
1. Dean and Suess (1995). Sludge Toxic is good for you!, Center for Media & Democracy. Posted by Common Courage Press, Monroe, ME. P. 101-107.
2. on the ground, the application toxic sludge in Vermont, Vermont Public Interest Research Group, VPIRG, 64 Main Street, Montpelier, VT 05602. (802) 223-5221.
3. 7-9.
4., Conversations with DEP officials and staff of the Portland Water District
5. field, the spread of toxic sludge Vermont, Vermont Public Interest Research Group VPIRG, 64 Main Street, Montpelier, VT 0560. (802) 223-5221. 35-36
6. Maine Solid Waste Management Regulations Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Waste Management solid, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 419, 17.
7. Harrison, Ellen Z. et al, (1999) The case of care recommendations Spreading sewage sludge and evaluation of U.S. EPAA € ™ s Part 503 Sludge Rules, Cornell Waste Management Institute, Center for the Environment, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. February.
8., the field, the application of toxic sludge in Vermont, Vermont Public Interest Research Group VPIRG, 64 Main Street, Montpelier, VT 05602. (802) 223-5221. 12-14.
9. / cchw € ™ s € ™ s America on Children's Choice of health or corporate profits, Center for Health, Environment and Justice, PC 6806, Falls Church, VA 22040 703.237.2249, 546
10. Gibbs, Lois Marie et al. (1995) Dying from Dioxin: A Citizen's Guide to the recovery and rebuilding our Democracy Health. South End Press, Boston .. P. 25
11. 10-11.
12. Scott, Laura, et al. (1998) Sedimentation in New Hampshire. Answers City and local officials from the city of New Hampshire. Sierra Club of New Hampshire. â € Öland spreading of sewage biosolids € Maine.â brochure Maine Wastewater Control Association.
13. Lewis, David L., et al. increased susceptibility to infection by exposure to gases emitted by sewage sludge: A case study, the departments of Marine Science, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, and Medical Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, Bioset, Inc., 13700 Veterans Memorial, Ste 385, Houston, TX, 77014. (Conclusions)
14. Tuohy, John (2000) a probe € œState wrong track cycling followed a bee sting, â € USA Today, July 13. 20. Statement Joanne Marshall
15. / cchw. â € œâ Comparison of heavy metals in sewage sludge, soil and regulations
16. standards, â € 10/10/00 leaf Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 47
17. Maine solid Regulations on Management of Waste Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Waste Management Solids, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 2, 21-22.
18. Standards, â € 10/10/00 leaf Maine Department of Environmental Protection.
19. Maine Solid Waste Management Regulations Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Protection Environment, Office of Solid Waste Management, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 419, 7-10.
20. Maine Solid Waste Management Regulations Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection Management Management solid waste, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 419, 26.
21. Maine Solid Waste Management Regulations Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Solid Waste Management, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 419, 7-10 and 26.
22. Maine Regulations solid waste management Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Solid Waste Management, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 400 28.
23. Maine Regulations solid waste management Chapters 419, 400, 405, and Appendix A of Chapter 418 and the repeal of Chapter 567, Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Solid Waste Management, 17 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333-0017. Chapter 419, 26-27.

About the Author

Md. Wasim Aktar is a Senior Research Fellow in Export Testing Laboratory, APEDA, B.C.K.V., Mohanpur,West Bengal, Pin-741252,India. He is expert in pesticide residue analysis using GC-MS and LC-MS from different environmental samples. He is an Agriculture Graduate and obtained his M.Sc. degree in Agricultural Chemicals from B.C.K.V. He is now doing his Ph.D. work in the same university under the deptt. of Agricultural Chemicals.


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