Ply Worsted Weight

October 10, 2008 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

At Die Cut Machines your source for Die Cutting Machines and Crafting Supplies we hope the Ply Worsted Weight products and information here meets your needs.

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What is the difference between 3 layers of son and son-weight wool?

Weight refers to the thickness of the cable. The child is a 3-layer lightweight sometimes considered a sport weight is usually used for baby items. Worsted weight is a 4-layer, the average weight is the most popular, a "type multiple use of wire. Water is the number of "channels" that are twisted to form a chain wire. Therefore, 3 3-wire strands that are twisted and 4 folds to 4 threads.

Tire size FAQ

Auto Tire FAQ Generic
compiled by Bill Del Vecchio
target = "_blank"> Generic Auto Tire FAQ


This FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) has been formed to address some of the most common questions received at the forum on Compuserve CARS rationale for choice of tire size and purchases. Try to give an overview covering the typical concerns of consumers when shopping for tires for passenger cars DOT approved United States and / or Canada. The largest variations are not affected, in a historical perspective, the designations are not the Americans, truck tires and other specialty applications.

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1. What do all these marks on this side?
A. Size (ie 205/60-15)

B. Speed index (ie, M, V, Z)

C. Load Index (eg, 89, 92, 94)

D. Opinion UTQG (temperature, traction, wear)

E. M & S Designation

F. Max. Load

G. Max. Press

H. Type of construction

I. Department of Transportation serial

J. Date of manufacture (eg, 134) 2. Tire Care: Inflation and rotation

3. Substitute Size
A. Why do it?

B. How to calculate the height of tire revolutions per mile?

C. "I can put wide tires on the wheels of my bag?

D. That one plus one, two or three more conversion? 4. Buy Tire
A. What brands and models are best?

B. What are the important factors to consider when choosing tires?

C. How can I choose between Performance, Touring and All Seasons?

D. Which season All tires are the best in the snow?

E. Where do I buy my tires? 5. What about snow tires?

6. What about buying new wheels with tires?

7. What tires for my SUV or 4x4?

7. Sources FAQ, Bibliography and Revision History

8. Copyright and Other Important Information

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1.A. How can I read a tire sidewall to give your size?

The tire size is expressed in the format WWW / AA-DD (c.-à-205/60-15) if WWW is the tire from sidewall to sidewall width in millimeters (205) AA is the aspect ratio or profile tires, which specifies the height of the tire as a percentage of its width (60% of 205 = 123 mm) and DD is the diameter of the wheel that the tire is mounted inches (15 inches). If the size P205/60R15 is presented as the "P" stands for passengers and the "R" is for the construction of the radial structure. Note that the width does not measure the tread, which can vary significantly between the nominal width of tire, even in the product lines from the same manufacturer.

"And one of the old tires that were not an aspect ratio?

For more without a tire aspect ratio (ie 175R13) is generally supposed to be a 78 or 80 series tires (175/78R13 or c.-à-175/80R13). Note that for some European models of tires, the value Default is 83 ration. Fortunately, the practice not to include the aspect ratio is less and less frequent.

1.B. Speed Rating

The speed rating was traditionally shown as part of the tire size, ie "205/60VR15. Since Inclusion of the carrying capacity (see below 1.C), many manufacturers are showing the speed level after the combined size with the capacity ie 205/60R15 92V. Commonly used speed ratings are:


Top Speed

N 87 mph

Q 100 mph

S 112 mph

T 118 mph

U 124 mph

H 130 mph

V 149 mph *

Over 149 mph AZ

W 168 mph

And 186 mph

* The original V was "more than 130 mph. W and Y ratings are relatively new, therefore, redundancy with Z, which will probably be decommissioned in the future.

1.C. Load Index

Index Load indicates the maximum weight the tire can carry at the maximum speed indicated by its speed range. Some sample rates supported:

Guest Capacity (lbs)

75 853

82 1047

85 1135

87 1201

88 1235

91 1356

92 1389

93 1433

105 2039

1.D. UTQG (Uniform Tire Quality Classification)

... Three aspects rates of return on tires: temperature, traction and wear. These ratings are usually found together on the sidewall. The manufacturers tires do their own tests and assigning grades UTQG. Some variations are inherent to the tests because of lack of controls. FWIW, experts generally agree that the wear is consistent within the ranges of products from a particular manufacturer.

Temperature: A / B / C

Sample tire ability to dissipate heat and its resistance to heat generation. "C" means that the tire meets minimum federal standards measured in the laboratory, while "B" and "A" show even better performance than the minimum government.

Drive A / B / C

The degrees in a straight line wet braking performance. It is the best, C is the worst.

Porter numerical score

Prices of tire against a standard of review with a score of 100 when running a test set road. A score of 300, for example, indicates that the tire is given three times the mileage of the pneumatic. A score of 60 is expected to devote 60% of mileage Tire control.

1.e. M & S Designation

Indicates an all-season tires designed for use in mud and snow. Note that * No * means that it is a snow tire (see Chapter 6).

1.F. Max. Load

This is the maximum static weight, usually in both pounds and kilograms, which can support the tire.

1.G. Max. Press.

Maximum pressure (usually in PSI and kPa) tire is designed to handle. This is * not * pressure recommended, which is set by the vehicle manufacturer and indicated in the user manual and a sticker on the doorjamb or glove box lid (See Section 2).

1.h Construction

The number and composition of the tread and sidewall layers are listed on side, for example:

Wearing: 2 channels 1 + 1 + polyester nylon rope steel cable

Sidewall Plies: 2 Polyester String

1.I. DOT serial

All tires approved for street use in the United States by the Department Transportation will display a serial number of the DOT.

1.j. Manufacture Date

All tires are coded to indicate the week of manufacture. Find a three digit number following the DOT standard. The date code is stamped rather than molded. The first two digits indicate week of the year in which the tire was produced (01 to 52), followed by the last digit of the year of manufacture. A tire with a "134" was manufactured in the 13th week (the week of April 4, in this case) 1994.

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2. Tire Care: Inflation and rotation

That inflation pressure in my tires be used?

As indicated in 1.G. Previously, it is recommended tire pressure are set by the vehicle manufacturer not the manufacturer of tires. They are declared in the owner's manual and a sticker on the door jamb or box cover glove. It is important to check often under pressure at least once a month - more often if you find that you are losing pressure. For consistency, always measure the pressures before driving when tires are cold (parked for a minimum of four hours, preferably overnight).

Pressure affects your car tires as follows:

Lower pressures higher pressures

more comfortable ride hard

Handling less precise and a better feeling in the hand

Use more on the edges in the center

superior fuel consumption (rolling resistance)

Constant monitoring tends to follow the grooves

Many car manufacturers are conservative (low) with the recommended pressure to maintain a comfortable ride. Drivers who push the car pretty hard usually prefer a slightly higher. If want to experience, 32 years, all is a good starting point - not fit to embark on their own preferences.

Temperature external influences on the tire pressure, a general rule is that 10 degrees Fahrenheit change will change the tire pressure 1 psi. When temperatures fluctuate, check your blood pressure more often. And if you check in a heated garage, body temperature setting time.

How about rotation?

Recommendations patterns for rotating tires and mileage intervals vary, check your owner's manual and vehicle the recommendations of the tire manufacturer for some guidelines. Generally, we recommend the rotation at least every 10,000 miles. It may be wise to run more often if you use ultra high performance tires that wear quickly, or whether adjustments to the suspension of your car tire wear on one end the car at a much faster rate. Many people find it convenient and a useful reminder to rotate your tires, and its agenda to change the oil every 7,500 miles from the typical car or any other changes for people with more frequent changes. YMMV!

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3.A. Other sizing - why do it?

Changes in size OEM tires are usually done to improve the car's behavior and performance. Except for snow tires (see Section 5), a common goal to achieve wider tires and / or shorter sidewalls, without changing the overall diameter of the rim. Great motion changes in width contact patch between the tire and may lead to a significant improvement in treatment. Overall, more rubber on the road offers a better grip. A shorter sidewall (Low-Aspect Ratio) offers less flexibility than can improve turn-in, responsiveness and stability. Keep up with the tires in general closest material as possible reduce the possibility that the changes will affect the accuracy of the speedometer and odometer of the car, the general approach, the dynamics of suspension problems and introduce the potential liquidation.

Note well: With a change in the size of the OEM, space between the rim, fender, bumpers and suspension components wells is a key concern. They also expect that the changes Tire size calculated, always possible, the real, mounted tires.

3.B. How to calculate the height of tire revolutions per mile?

theoretical height of a tire in inches is calculated as follows:

H = (W x (Ratio/100) x 03,937 x 2) + diameter

The width multiplied by the aspect ratio of more than 100 gives the height in millimeters, multiplied by 03,937 converted to inches, and duplication of what explains the fact there is in the bottom of the tire and the top of the rim.

Rotations per mile (RPM) can be calculated as follows:

RPM = circumference of the tire (Inches per mile) /

= (5280 * 12) / (height * 3.1416)

= 20,168 / height

According to some estimates, the sample height tires and RPM are shown below:

RPM @ 60MPH height error Note:

205 60 15 24.69 size from 817 to 60.0 population

55 15 24.74 225 0.2% 815 60.1 wide tires in stock

50 16 811 225 24.86 60.4 0.7% plus

817 245 45 16 24.68 60.0 0.0% plus

40 17 816 245 24.72 60.1 0.1% over two

35 18 24.75 245 0.3% 815 60.2 plus three

185 824 65 15 24.47 -0.9% 59.5 alternative snow tires

It may be useful to establish a simple spreadsheet to determine the options. Height and RPM calculations indicated above, while error and the speedometer 60 mph is calculated from the RPM compared to the size of the population. An error of less than 1% almost always indicates a very good game.

3.C. "I can put wider tires on the wheels of my action?

The best way to collect additional performance is usually for a slightly wider tire with a lower aspect ratio for use on the edge of values. For example, a stock 205/60-15 tires can be replaced by a 225/50-15 almost no change in diameter in general. Note also that, in addition to considerations settlement above, the width of the rim of the market should also be able to accommodate tires in general. A 6 "wide board is easy to adapt to a 205/60 tire, but it is at the lower end of the rim width recommended tire for most manufacturers 225/50. Whenever possible, seek the advice of the manufacturer of tires and other car owners to see the width of the rim storage capacity.

3.D. What is one plus one, plus two or three more conversions?

Also shown is "1", "2" or "3", These names indicate the change of tires in stock for wheels 1, 2 or 3 inches larger diameter. Go to a larger diameter rim, keeping the height Total tire on the same tire that could allow somewhat wider, shorter, which can have a dramatic effect on the handling of a car, ride and appearance.

As shown in 2.B. above, possible replacements for a stock 205/60-15 can range from a judicious combination of 1 225/50-16 245/35-18 instead of a disgrace for conversion 3. Note that price increases are not linear, but 18 years and over to 19-inch wheels and tires are available, can cost several times what a configuration of 15 or 16-inch run.

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4.A. Tire Buying - What brands and models are the best?

There is no "best" option. What is good for you depends largely on your car and your preferences. In that spirit, here is a comprehensive list of some Tire most frequently recommended by forum users Cars by type:

Upper-Int: Pirelli PZero Ultra Bridgestone Expedia

High performance Dunlop SP8000 and D40M2 * * * * Yokohama AVS intermediates and A509, P700Z Pirelli, Bridgestone RE71, BF Goodrich T GO / A 3, Goodyear GS-C

Touring Pirelli P4000 M & S, M & S Bridgestone Turanza, Yokohama A378

For all seasons Dunlop D60A2 * P500 Pirelli, Yokohama AVS U +4 Michelin XGT, V4

Race / Autocross: Yokohama A008 A008 * RS and RS II, Comp BF Goodrich T / A R1 226 and 230 (compounds), Goodyear GS-CS

* CARS-All Stars - Positive feedback from satisfied users often

4.B. What are the important factors to consider when choosing tires?

The best tire depends on various factors, and most be precise when you ask a professional for advice, the best advice is likely to receive:

  • What type of car, truck or truck you drive?
  • What is the stock tire size? Are you considering a change?
  • How do you manage? Is this your style aggressive driving, passive or middle?
  • When you drive? City, roads, mountains, on the track?
  • How's the weather? What the climate of the region? Is the car used throughout the year? How snow or heavy rain that you get?
  • What is important to you? How to prioritize traction ride comfort, wear, steering response, handling and noise?
  • What is your hope price? What is the importance of value in comparison with the elements of performance tires priority above?
  • Do you have a particular brand or model in mind? Have you had good or bad experiences with all models in the past? How do you currently have tires behave?

4C How do I choose between Performance, Touring and All Seasons?

Hard question! These few thoughts random notes to help:

  • Ultra high performance tires provide more traction and performance that can be used in any Street safety. They are a waste of money for most drivers and most cars unless they are used as a street double use / racing tire. tire life of 10,000 miles can be expected in some models of cars.
  • High-performance tires also provide traction and performance of a responsible driver should use the street. But in so doing, increase the safety margin in case of emergency maneuvers conduct. There are some very competitive, profitable models in this classification is not necessary to spend lots of money for performance spectacular and improved safety equipment on the original tires.
  • The "Touring" is a relatively new name. Definitions may vary among manufacturers, but most are marketed as competent interpreters throughout the year "worth better than for all seasons capacity and better driving ability of a slippery condition of the tires.
  • A true All season tires have a "M + S (mud and snow) designation on the sidewall. All Seasons usually much better than the performance tires in the mud, snow or ice, but is something of a misunderstanding that also do better in wet conditions. In tire testing (see Section 7), the performance of the tires was better in the wet treatment and stopping all stations. In general, all stations are a compromise solution that allows you to use the year tires all year round, even when snow is expected. By using performance tires and a set of tires for the snow (see Section 5) is recommended used by many car forums.

4C What better all-season tires in snow?

Richard Engel [76614.3653 tires] tank in Edmonton, Alberta, the D65 offers Dunlop Axiom and Sport 4000, Pirelli and Yokohama Y370/Y378 P300 Several performers in the snow, but hesitate not to remind everyone that to get better traction, you need a set of winter tires.

4.D. Where can I buy tires?

Perhaps the best way to buy tires is to find a store of knowledge, local is affordable, competent services of people, modern equipment and gives honest advice. As national chains, super stores have been recommended as ideal for all charges. Fiesta tire stores in the North have some good prices if you negotiate, but their recommendations are often biased by the cost storage and service can be erratic.

Among the companies mail order, the grid tires in hundreds (800) 428-8355 has been recommended for a good time for advice, excellent availability and competitive prices. If you call, ask for Robert Scott x307 or x343. Tire Rack has also Web presence Tire Rack - Your performance experts for tires and wheels - there was still 4 / 96, but already a very impressive interface with good content and (very) quickly theirs. Highly recommended!

Discount Tire Direct (800) 707-8473 also has outlets and price as possible to beat Tire Rack and delivery. TeleTire (800) 835-8473 does not even many manufacturers like some other companies, but also determined to try give the best price. EuroTire (800) 631-0080 Phone orders also for sale through its stores, but has a limited selection mark.

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5. What about snow tires?

For snow tires, narrower and higher usually works better than the stock tire size, and some experts recommend considering a "Minus One" conversion, especially for cars with wide tires. The calculations presented in 2.B. above are also used for the determination of narrower tires and format conversions snow Minus One, namely:

Height error RPM @ 60MPH * Note:

275 40 17 25.66 786-60.0 population size

60 16 25.69 205 0.1% 785 60.1 Minus One

Height error RPM @ 60MPH * Note:

50 15 205 23.07 874 to the size of the population 60.0

185 876 55 15 23.01 -0.3% 59.8 close on the bags of snow tires ass

Graves, for driving in the snow, regular or all-season tires are no match for a good set of four snow tires. Forum members include cars, the most frequently mentioned and 210p models 190P Pirelli and Bridgestone Blizzak. The Pirelli is a good choice of snow tires all around performance in dry and wear reasonable expectations, and the new Pirelli S / P is a good choice for serious duty tires studdable.

The Blizzak is a recent introduction, but already has many fans. They offer excellent traction on slippery surfaces, but its dual tread composed of design means it can not be a good choice for all situations. Once the Blizzak tread is worn below 55%, is designed to function as an all-season tire rather than a snow tire. This may work for someone who puts high annual mileage in your car, hoping to replace your tires a year and prefer not having to carry a second set of tires. With the purchase of a new set Blizzak of late fall, you can ensure optimum traction on snow throughout the winter. Like tires, you get a competent use all season until the next replacement cycle. Alternatively, a person who gets less mileage the car can hold a whole through Blizzak several winters by installing them shortly before the start of the snow removed in early spring.

Nokia Hakkapeliitta deserve special mention may be snow tire for the rallyists premium is used in addition to any other brand. Due to the limited distribution that can be difficult to find, but several members Forum Greer recommended companies in Milwaukee (414-744-0996) as a source for tires for Nokia.

Do I need * four * snow tires?

The issue of 2 vs. 4 snow has been raised several times. Although snow convent ional wisdom used to be the setting-wheel drive was sufficient, the most recent recommendations have been the use of all four. Why Why? The main concern is that snow and all seasons, dramatically handling characteristics.
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