Raw Polymer Clay

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Biologists are interested in the role of clays in the origin of life. They think clay might have

A) supplied the raw materials for organic compounds.
B) catalyzed the formation of organic polymers such as proteins and RNA.
C) formed primitive cell membranes that could grow and divide.
D) catalyzed the formation of monomers such as amino acids and simple sugars.
E) supplied the energy for the metabolism in the first simple cells.

B) catalyzed the formation of organic polymers such as proteins and RNA.

i have read about this in richard dawkins' book "the selfish gene". however, the idea belongs to graham cairns-smith.

Biodegradable Products and their Uses (2)

 

Biodegradable Products and their Uses (2)

In a previous communication we considered the use and application of biodegradable polymers for the delivery of drug systems and gene therapy. Since these polymers have been used in many other daily applications, we wish herewith to show these as well.

Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in strengthening various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated.  Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications.  These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to form complex composites having varying levels of contamination.  Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resolution.

Plastic products consume about 270 million tons of oil in petrochemical factories every year worldwide.  Fossil fuels provide both the power and the raw material that transform crude oil into common plastics such as polystyrene, polyethylene and polypropylene.  It is now technologically possible to make plastics using green plants; rather than fossil fuels.  Considering the global warming, researchers are now trying to replace renewable raw materials and energy for fossil fuels.  The plant-based plastic would be "green" in terms of three aspects: safe use, biodegradability and no-toxicity

      The first biodegradable plastic ever used was cellophaneproduced from the plant-derived structura polysaccharide cellulose.From the 1970s, researc focus shifted away from cellulose to the mor processable biopolymerstarch, and in the and1990s,th process of grafting, 1980s wherein two polymeri components are chemically and physically joined, was made from blends introducedMater-Bi of starch and various synthetic biodegradabl polymers is one of the few successfully marketed d biodegradable products, Alternative renewable materials are pectin rapeseed oil products and fermentationproducts

 Natural fibres were also considered as reinforcement in polymers based on renewable raw materials. The materials were flax fibres and poly (lactic acid) (PLA).  PLA is thermoplastic polymer made from lactic acid and has mainly been used for biodegradable products, such as plastic bags and planting cupsbut in principle PLA can alsobe used as a matrix material in composites.  

 However, because of the brittle nature of PLA triacetin was tested as plasticizerfor PLA and PLA/flax composites in order to improve the impact properties

.Nowadays, biodegradable polymers have found a market and plausible  appliance, in the daily life e.g. a biodegradable  ,aqueous coating solutioncomposition which is useful for producing foamed wallpaper having improvedfoam ability, moldability, printability and scratch resistance, and allowsproduction of cost-efficient and environmentally-friendly biodegradableproducts  emitting no harmful materials The biodegradable aqueous. 

 coating solution composition comprises1-20 wt% of a polyhydric alcoholas a plasticizer10-50 wt% of water ; 1-10 wt% of isopentane or isobutaneas a foaming agent; 10-50 wt% of an aqueous solution of ethylene-vinyl alcoholcopolymer or acrylic copolymer as a binder; 10-60 wt%.

 Floor sweeping compounds that are amenable to processes for reducing thehydrocarbons in oil spills are changed to biodegradable products, capable of environmentally safe disposal. These are manufactured. by mixingwaste shredded paper (optionally de- metalized)with a biodegradable surfactant calcium oxide and water until a temperature. about 140-150°F is achieved and adding a citric-based solvent degreaser and ?1% of a silica diatomite plankton and a non-swelling clay The biodegradable surfactant may be mixed  with the citric-based solvent degrease with the shredded paper prior to combining

Several techniques were used in order to find out, at least in the short term,whether biodegradable polymersor products can safely be done with withoutleaving a trace or remanent of the product Of the many procedures used, were toutilise certain strains of bacteriawhich degrades and feeds on the product and turn the residue into harmless products. Other methods utilise uv irradiation for thepurpose of degradation which isparticularly useful for oils polymers used aslubricants or co-fertilizers used in the field. This meant that sunlight will degradethese products successfully in due time

. Natural fibres were also considered as reinforcement in polymers based on renewable raw materials. The materials were flax fibres and poly (lactic acid) (PLA).  PLA is thermoplastic polymer made from lactic acid and has mainlybeen used for biodegradable products, such as plastic bags and planting cups but in principle PLA can also be used as a matrix material in composites.   However, because of the brittle nature of PLA triacetin was tested as plasticizerfor PLA and PLA/flax composites in order to improve the impact properties.

 Nowadays, biodegradable polymers have found a market and plausible appliance, in the daily life, e.g. a biodegradable aqueous coating solutioncomposition which is useful for producing foamed wallpaper having improved foam ability, moldability, printability and scratch resistance, and allows production of cost-efficient and environmentally-friendly biodegradable products emitting no harmful materials The biodegradable aqueous. coating solution composition comprises1-20 wt% of a polyhydric alcohol as a plasticizer10-50 wt% of water; 1-10 wt% of isopentane or isobutane as a foaming agent; 10-50 wt% of an aqueous solution of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer or acrylic copolymer as a binder; 10-60 wt%.

Floor sweeping compounds that are amenable to processes for reducing the hydrocarbons in oil spills are changed to biodegradable products, capable of environmentally safe disposal. These are manufactured. by mixing waste shredded paper (optionally de- metalized) with a biodegradable surfactant  calcium oxide and water until a temperature. about 140-150°F is achieved and adding a citric-based solvent degreaser and ?1% of a silica diatomite plankton and a non-swelling clay The biodegradable surfactant may be mixe with the citric-based solvent degreaser prior to combining with the shredded paper

Several techniques were used in order to find out, at least in the short term,whether biodegradable polymers or products can safely be done with withoutleaving a trace or remanent of the product Of the many procedures used, were to utilise certain strains of bacteria which degrades and feeds on the product and turn the residue into harmless products. Other methods utilise uv irradiation for the purpose of degradation which is particularly useful for oils polymers used as ubricants or co-fertilizers used in the field. This meant that sunlight will degrade  these products successfully in due time.

 

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