Raw Wool Fleece

March 26, 2006 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

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Would it pay to turn my own son?

About how many yards of yarn can make a book of raw wool / wool? Any ever had or been stained aftewards? How much is saved after each finished skein (estimate)? Thank you all.

In general, the son of a wool pound amounts to about 900 to 1200 meters. Most raw wool must be scoured (cleaned with something like Dawn dish washing liquid) and prepared in the phone (patent). If you were able to use the whole book of raw wool, and turn the maximum amount of wool (1200 meters), it would cost between $ 20 and $ 200 for the same amount of agreement on the content of fiber.

Biotechnology a blessing for the textile industry

Biotechnology has made rapid progress in genetic engineering, with the possibility to "adapt" the agencies to maximize the production of established or new metabolites of commercial importance and of transferring material DNA (genes) from one organism to another. He recorded in the industrial development process with less energy and renewable resources making it an effective, integrated and interdisciplinary natural sciences engineering. Few textile industrial uses are concentrated here.

biopolymer and cotton fibers, wool and natural silk fibers are good, but the production of single fibers Biotechnology improve returns on existing fibers. Cotton is the leader in textile fibers yields in the world with about 20 million tonnes per year grown in about 85 countries, but is vulnerable to many insects, and maintain large quantities of pesticides are in use. Cotton is susceptible to infestation by weeds in conditions of intensive irrigation and needs throughout their growth cycle, and has a low tolerance to herbicides. Then biotechnologists have to fill short-term goals on the genetic engineering of insects, disease and herbicide resistance in cotton plants with change in the quality of the fiber and the properties have high performance cottons. Natural colored cotton attract the world market of transgenic cotton So intense color (blue and red) is the dream of one day may replace bleaching and dyeing.

Biotechnology has greatly influenced the production of animal fibers, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, diagnosis, genetic engineering of drugs and therapeutic vaccines are the catchment of the Act. National Research Organisation CSIRO Australia worked to the genetic modification of sheep to withstand attack a fly by the genius of a sheep that secrete a repellent to your hair follicles and biological shear wool.''And it is provided that the epidermal growth factor in the artificial injection in sheep breaks hair growth, within one-month break wool and can remove all half the time required to shear a sheep.

Fermentation is the development of biopolymers in storage polyhydroxybutyrate bacterial complex is wide (PHB) is developed by Zeneca Bioproducts and produced "biopol." Polyester is a high molecular weight linear thermoplastic (it melts at 180 ° C) and can be melt spun into fibers used for surgical biocompatible and biodegradable enzymes in the body human sutures degrade slowly. Biopol is used as conventional plastics for bottles of shampoo, but it is not economic, research is in the production of varieties of plants genetically biopol probably rape. polysaccharide chitin, alginate, dextran and hyaluronic acid biopolymers of interest in healing the wound that chitin and chitosan derivatives are important components of the cell wall of fungi, currently made from seafood (shellfish) waste. Obtained by the Japanese Patent Unitika include the use of chitin fibers in sauces. In BTTG, research has been done by the use of fungi filaments intact as a direct source of chitin and chitosan fibers to produce cheaper bandages and other materials of the novel. Tests have been made in Wales School of Pharmacy indicate that these products have healing properties of the acceleration. dressings on the calcium alginate fibers were developed by Courtaulds and marketed as "SORBS. running of this polysaccharide are based on extraction of brown algae. Without However, a polymer of similar structure can also be produced by fermentation of certain species of bacteria. Dextran, which is produced by fermentation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides sucrose or species-related bacteria, is also under development as a nonwoven fibrous special applications such as bandages wounds. Other unique biopolymers are now put on the market thanks to biotechnology, For example, hyaluronic acid, a D-glucuronic acid and N-polydisaccharide acetylglucosamine in a matrix of connective tissue of vertebrates and is also present in the capsules of certain bacteria. The original method of production by extraction from rooster combs was very inefficient because they require 5 kg of the yellow rail to provide 4 g of hyaluronic acid. Fermentech, a British biotechnology company, is now the production of acid fermentation Hyaluronic. The same amount of high quality purified hyaluronic acid can be obtained from 4 liters of fermentation medium, compared to 5 kg of yellow rattle.

Different pathways for biotechnological production of cellulose are being developed worldwide cellulose is produced in an extracellular polysaccharide by different bacteria in the form of strips micro fibrils, and can be used to produce the molding equipment high relative strength. Sony, a Japanese electronics company has patented a way to make cones, high-fidelity speaker cellulose membranes bacteria. An alternative route to the cellulose still at an early stage of development issues in tissue culture of plant cells. Growing cells of different strains can produce fibers of cotton Gossypium vitro are a more consistent product that exhibits properties especially desirable. culture plant tissue can provide a constant, annual product offerings without climatic or geographical free from contamination by parasites. The Proteins are biopolymers of interest for the use of new techniques for genetic manipulation of animals and protein genes Plants (eg, collagen, silk number) can now be transferred to suitable hosts and microbial protein produced by fermentation. The U.S. military Spider silk is a fiber of high performance body armor.


Chemical reactions on catalytic proteins (enzymes) are a central feature of living systems, enzymes, living cells, but does enzymes are alive and we encourage the cells to live longer than they usually enzymes. Or make a slightly different enzyme (engineering protein) specificity, stability and performance in industrial processes and operating under mild pH and temperature. Several enzymes have a specificity and a high selectivity stereo. With the notable exception of the removal of starch amylases by size, however, little attention is given to the application of enzymes in textile processing textile fibers such as preparing flax and hemp to the Dew retting involves the action of pectinolytic enzymes from microorganisms that degrade the middle lamella pectin in plant fibers. However, it seems not trying to donate using isolated enzyme preparations for the desired effect, although its effectiveness has been demonstrated in the laboratory.

The use of isolated enzymes to remove grease and waxes, pectin, color coat material and impurities of loom state cotton and cotton / polyester, resulting in a novel, low-power process of tissue preparation, (replace washing and bleaching) is studied BTTG. The success is only partial, it is through the use of commercial enzyme preparations due to the recalcitrant nature of some of the ingredients and the process proved too slow and therefore not profitable for existing applications. Enzyme is applied in the treatment of textiles for the elimination of hydrogen peroxide before dyeing is catalase. Undoubtedly, the use of enzymes microbes can be expected to develop in many other areas of the textile industry to substitute chemicals or processes that exist in the not too distant future mechanics.

Unlike the textile processing enzymes used in detergents, since its inception in 1960, and washing powders are known as "organic", and stains degrade with milder conditions of low temperature washing savings energy and protect the fabric. cellulase enzymes could replace the pumice stones used to produce "stone washed" denim, the stones can damage clothing, especially the hems and waistbands, and most manufacturers are now using enzymatic treatment. cellulase enzymes are biopolishing, hair removal on the surface of cellulose fibers, which eliminates pilling soft cloth and clean looking. Similarly, the protease have been developed for wool.

Interesting use of enzymes found in the biotransformation of chemical transformation of a substance biocatalytic to another. In practice, either intact cells, a cell extract or an isolated enzyme system may be used as a catalyst for a specific reaction. The concentration of enzymes in individual cells is generally less than 1 per cent which can be increased by amplification techniques gene. Large-scale production by chemical-based oil is replaced by biotransformations, biotechnology is in competition with synthesis chemistry. For example, the optical activity of polymer precursor chemicals is likely to grow and has a particular advantage in biotransformation on traditional chemical methods.

Textile auxiliaries: the colors are produced by fermentation of plants or in the future in many nineteenth-century colors used to dye textiles from plants such as woad, indigo and blonde. Many micro-organisms produce pigments during growth, which are substantive as shown in the related permanent staining and mold growth in the textiles and plastics. Some species produce up to 30% of its dry weight as a pigment, pigments are also microbial benzoquinone, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and derivatives and benzofluoranthenequinone perinaphthenone, resembling in some cases, the large group of vat dyes. Agencies have a great potential for direct production of new textile dyes or dyes intermediates by fermentation techniques to replace the controlled chemical synthesis. Production and evaluation pigments and textile dyes are currently under investigation microbial to BTTG. Another way of biotechnology for the production of pigments for use in foods cosmetics and textile industry is growing plant cells, for example, red pigment shikonin (Cosmetics) is produced commercially since 1983 in Japan. Shikonin was extracted from the roots of plants erythrorhiz Lithosperum five years when about 1 to 2 percent of the dry weight of roots. In tissue culture, yields pigment of about 15 percent of dry weight of root cells have been achieved.

New analysis tools: Work BTTG molecular biology has led to the development of DNA probes for each species of animal fiber to detect the falsification of fiber high-value specialty fibers such as cashmere much cheaper for example, wool and yak hair. methods have evolved quickly to help detect Early Biodeterioration of textiles and other materials. BTTG have shown that the presence of viable micro-organisms on textiles can be evaluated using enzyme isolated firefly luciferase (Photinus pyralis), which releases light (bioluminescence) in combination with the ATP produced by microorganisms.

Waste Management: The microbes or their enzymes are used to degrade toxic waste rather than processes traditional, so that the waste is useful to active industrial biotechnology. The removal of the color of the textile cleaning Dry waste, heavy metals, toxic compounds abroad and pentachlorophenol used as a treatment to test the putrefaction cotton fabrics but not washed for further processing in the United Kingdom represents a challenge for disposal. At present efforts to solve these problems may seem biotechnology provide the most effective solutions.

Conclusions: The biotechnology is considered next as a science, with enormous implications for trade in many industries in the years to come. He has successfully developed new products, open new doors, production accelerated and helped clean up the environment. Primarily in biotechnology contributes much to the textile industry, but the actual consciousness is low. Michael Heseltine has recently launched "Media Biotechnology Entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom to inform Biotechnology companies and put them in touch with experts for the implementation of biotechnology for a competitive advantage for your company to earn new markets. For example, the downstream processing after fermentation accounts for at least 70 percent of production costs of biotechnology and there is a need for better filtration and separation techniques. hollow fiber membranes, which separate molecules by size, find a wider application in this field.

Enzymes are used in detergents, for example, removes stains caused by the protease protein, such as blood, grass, egg and human sweat. Amylase removes stains from starch such as potatoes, pasta, rice and cream. Lipase decomposes fats, oils and grease stains remove oil-based salad dressings, sauces, butter, fat soups, and some products cosmetics such as lipsticks. Cellulase clarifies and softens the material, and dirt out of particles trapped in the fibers. Biotechnology improves short varieties of plants used in fiber production and properties of fibers and fiber derived from animals and care animal health with the new fibers of biopolymers and genetically modified organisms. The survismeter is an effective tool for characterizing the fermentation broth.


  1. Media Company Biotechnology: state of the art in the report "The textiles and clothing, 1995, the Biotechnology Unit, DTI, LGC, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LY, United Kingdom.
  2. Booklet on enzymes and the environment, 1993, Novo Nordisk A / S, DK - 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.

Glossary: Biotechnology: The use of organisms live or their cellular, subcellular or molecular components for the manufacture of products and establish processes. DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, chemical molecule to carry the hereditary information passed from parents to children. Probe DNA: DNA single strand to detect the presence complementary DNA strands. molecules of protein enzymes, which accelerate specific chemical reactions and remain unchanged. Gene: unit of heredity composed of DNA.

Genetic Engineering: A range of techniques to manipulate DNA and modify that the genetic structure of living organisms. Transgenesis: the stable incorporation of foreign DNA from one species to another. For example, the incorporation of genes of bacteria resistant to insects of transgenic plants has been developed.

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