Round Porcelain Beads

December 26, 2006 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

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Can someone tell me about Chinese people outside the Far East in ancient times?

In 620 A.D. Harshavardhana invaded the Chalukya kingdom in the Deccan, which was then ruled by Pulakesin II. But the Chalukya resistance proved tough for Harshavardhana and he was defeated. Harshavardhana is well known for his religious toleration, able administration and diplomatic relations. He maintained diplomatic relations with China and sent envoys, who exchanged ideas of the Chinese rulers and developed their knowledge about each other. The Chinese traveller, Hiuen Tsang, who visited India during his reign, has given a vivid description of the social, economic and religious conditions, under the rule of Harsha spoke highly of the king. Harsha's death, once again, left India without any central paramount power.
http://india.gov.in/knowindia/ancient_history5.php

The intellectual relations between China and India, stretching over two thousand years, have had far-reaching effects on the history of both countries, yet they are hardly remembered today. India maintained close trade and cultural relations with China. India exported coral, pearls, glass vessels and beads to China. In return, India got jade and silk from China. During the course of this trade, Chinese merchants and traders brought thousands of Chinese coins to India which was sometimes used as money.

Archaeologists have discovered Chinese coins in many places such as Mahabalipuram and Tanjavur in India. These Chinese coins are made of copper or bronze. They are round and have a prominent square-shaped hole in the centre. These coins were cast in moulds. The coins bear inscriptions in the Chinese script. Unlike ancient Indian coins, the Chinese coins do not exhibit pictures of kings, animals, birds, plants or other objects. Several museums in India have collections of Chinese coins. These coins have a lot of religious and symbolic value. The ancient Chinese believed that the small earth was square and the vast heaven was round. Hence, a big round Chinese coin with a small square hole was considered to depict both heaven and earth. It is also believed that if Chinese coins are hung on the front door of a house, the people in the house will always be happy and joyful.
http://www.indianetzone.com/22/chinese_coins_south_india.htm

The Silk Routes enabled people to transport and trade not only luxury silk goods, but also many other products such as fine fabrics, musk, other perfumes, spices and medicines, jewels, glassware and even rhubarb. Moreover, the routes served as paths for the spread of knowledge, ideas, cultures, and diseases between different parts of the world. The important conduits of cultural and technological transmission, extending over 4,000 miles, linked traders, merchants, pilgrims, missionaries, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers in China, India, Persia and Mediterranean countries for over 2,000 years....A route for caravans, the northern Silk Road brought to China many goods such as "dates, saffron powder and pistachio nuts from Persia; frankincense, aloes and myrrh from Somalia; sandalwood from India; glass bottles from Egypt, and other expensive and desirable goods from other parts of the world." In exchange, the caravans sent back bolts of silk brocade, lacquer ware and porcelain. The southern route is mainly a single route running from China through northern India, the Turkestan–Khorasan region, Mesopotamia, and into Anatolia, with southward spurs enabling the journey to be completed by sea from various points. It starts out south through the Sichuan Basin in China. Crossing the high mountains into northeast India, probably via the Ancient tea route, it continues west along the Brahmaputra and Ganges river plains, possibly joining the Grand Trunk Road west of Varanasi. Then it passes through northern Pakistan, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Afghanistan, rejoining the northern route briefly near Merv. From there it follows a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant, where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy, and land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa. The sea route started in China's Eastern Han Dynasty, although it was not part of the formal Silk Route, led from the mouth of the Red River near modern Hanoi, through the Malacca Straits to Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India, and then on to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea kingdom of Axum and eventual Roman ports. From ports on the Red Sea goods, including silks, were transported overland to the Nile and then to Alexandria from where they were shipped to Rome, Constantinople and other Mediterranean ports. This water route in some sources is called the Indian Ocean Maritime System.
http://www.chinafacttours.com/travel_destinations/silkroad/silk-road.html

Shopping in Italy is a beautiful adventure

Shopping in Italy

Italy attract the hottest purchase is the fashion, of course. Kite Welcome to the fashion industry of the country, but Rome is the main Italian market, where the son is put on the market. Here you can find clothes chic brand numbering in the hundreds. The quality is very high and the range of materials including leather, cotton, silk and wool.

Addition clothing, Italy is par excellence in the production of quality glassware, furniture, jewelry and porcelain.

Shopping in Rome

While Rome is full of international fashion boutiques, shopping in the Eternal City can still offer their own flavor very Roman. For the latest in displays, the area of Via Condotti, at the foot of the stairs Spanish is the place to go. You can see the creations of Armani, Prada, Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Gucci and other big names in smart windows on the facades Baroque or Neoclassical. But remember that the rise in rents Rome boom and prices too.

For antiques, head of the Via dei Coronari. It is a Pedestrian Street near Piazza Navona. Road length is 500 meters full of antique shops and galleries.

For the true Roman experience, you must visit one of the markets many of the city. On Sunday morning flea market of Porta Portese overcrowding is an event where you can buy almost everything. It is through the south Porta Portese Portuense. Beware of pickpockets.

Monday to Saturday morning is the market Via Sannio, in the suburbs of Roman wall of San Giovanni in Laterano. Here You can browse through large quantities of inexpensive clothing.

Shopping in Venice

Venice has long been a place of commerce and remains a busy commercial center. Although the names of major fashion houses are well represented, the joy of shopping in Venice in the hunt for items Local fantasy that evokes the spirit of the Serenissima.

But if the fashion brand that you are after, Venice did not disappoint. Island is the busiest shopping concepts. It runs all the way to the Rialto Square and stores the most famous Italian brands here.

For others, Calle della Mandola is the place to examine the books and glass beads. And Campo Santo Stefano is the square of the Hunt antiques. However, Venice can not leave without make a mask of carnival memories.

Carnival is the big event takes place every February, but the masks are made as keepsakes any year in small workshops of Venice. You can get all the masks porcelain sizeable value for items at low prices and decorative buckles silver earrings in the form of carnival masks.

The lenses of other major specialty of Venice is the island of Murano. This including items such as vases, watches and caps for bottles of wine. And you can also get decorative items such as rings, bracelets and pendants very nice stained glass. These can be very cheap and make good memories of Venice. Other special pleasures of Venice include porcelain dolls and Burano lace.

There are many of hotels Italy . As the Internet title = "hotels> Rome hotels or title = 'hotels> Venice hotels.

About the Author

Alistair White is the founder and CEO of Cheaper Than Hotels. Cheaper Than Hotels offers cheap Venice hotels.

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