Thick Rod Neodymium

October 26, 2008 by  
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Where can I find neodymium magnets in these sizes?

I'm looking for neodymium magnets that are 0.5-1mm long with diameters 2mm 2.5mm and 3mm.

Yes, I do need these very specific sizes haha

Hi Rosalie.

First4magnets.com we do a range of neodymium magnets that are 1mm thick/long. You can find them here:

http://www.first4magnets.com/circular-disc-rod-magnets-c34/neodymium-magnets-t137#t79

Unfortunately though, we aren't able to ship to the USA if that is where you are based.

Thanks
Matt

Applications of lasers in dentistry: a review

Applications of lasers in dentistry: A review

Author:

Prof. (Dr.) Bashir Mir A

Teacher

Department of Oral Surgery and Maxillofacial

Govt. Dental College, Sgr.

Co-authors:

Dr. Ajaz Shah A

Associate Professor and Chief

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial

Govt. Dental College, Sgr.

 

Mr. Suhail Lato

Professor

Department of Pathology Oral Microbiology

Govt. Dental College, Sgr

 

Altaf Malik H

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial

Govt. Dental College, Sgr

ABSTRACT

Lasers have been introduced in the field of clinical dentistry in the hope of overcoming some of the disadvantages posed by conventional methods of dental treatment. Since his first experience for dental applications in the 1960s, the use of lasers has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Currently, the varieties set of procedures are performed using aa laser. The purpose of this review is to describe the use of lasers in hard tissue dental procedures. Lasers have proven effective in preparing the cavity, the removal of caries, the elimination of restoration, engraving, and treatment tooth sensitivity, prevention of caries Dental bleaching. Based on the development of adhesive dentistry and the spread of the principles of minimum intervention, laser could revolutionize designing the cavity preparation.

Keywords: hard tissue dental laser, dental adhesive

INTRODUCTION

The use of lasers in dentistry has increased in recent years. The first laser was introduced in the fields of medicine and dentistry during the 1960s (Goldman et al., 1964). Since then, this science has progressed rapidly. Because its many advantages, lasers are suitable for a wide variety of procedures (and Koort Frentzen, 1990, Aoki et al. 1994; Pelagalli et al., 1997, Walsh, 2003). The methods conventional cavity preparation and high-speed handpieces combine low noise, vibration and stress uncomfortable for patients. Although pain may be reduced under local anesthesia, fear of the needle and the noise and vibration of the mechanical preparation continues to cause discomfort. These drawbacks have led to research new technologies as potential alternatives to the removal of dental hard tissues. The purpose of this review is to describe the application of lightning laser procedures of dental hard tissues.

The historical development

The first experience with laser beams dentistry reported in a study on the effects of a ruby laser pulse on the decay of man (Goldman et al, 1964). The results of this study showed that the effects vary from small holes 2 mm deep for complete removal of caries, with some money around the rim of the enamel, indicating the destruction of affected areas and the crater formation and melting of the dentin. Further work in the 1970s focused on the effects of carbon dioxide neodymium (Nd) and (CO2) laser on dental hard tissues. Early researchers found that the CO2 laser produces cracking and disruption of the prisms of enamel, dentin tubule incineration content, the excessive loss of tooth structure and mineralization and charring crack growth caused by the removal of organic matter (Gimbel, 2000). It has also been reported that the use of CO2 laser has been unfavorable because of the loss layer of odontoblasts (Wigdor et al., 1993).

Therefore, it was concluded that, unless structural changes associated with heat and dentin tissue damage could be reduced, laser technology can not replace the conventional dental drill. Further advances in laser technology, however, have been identified acceptable biological interactions. For example, the Er: YAG is proof of their ability to ablate (or spray) the dental hard tissues (Gimbel, 2000). Enamel and dentin caries were prepared successfully using the laser Er: YAG laser. Since then, the laser has been used for caries removal and cavity preparation, surgery soft tissue and small-scale (Aoki and Watanabe et al., 1998).

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

Preparation the cavity

Laser: Er: YAG was tested for the preparation of dental hard tissues for the first time in 1988. It was successfully used to prepare the holes in the enamel and dentin with a low "influences" (energy (MJ) / unit area (cm2)). Even without the cooling water (Burke et al. 1992), prepared cavities showed no cracks and carbonization of low or zero, while the increase average temperatures in the pulp cavity was approximately 4.3 ° C (Rechmann et al., 1998). In 1989, it was shown that the Er: YAG laser produces caries of enamel and dentin without major adverse effects. The effectiveness of ablation was about an order of magnitude lower that of soft tissue. It was concluded that the removal of dentin and enamel is very effective, without risk to the pulp (Armengol, 2000; Cavalcanti, 2003) and ablation rates of enamel have been reported in the range of 20-50 microns / pulse, and the dentin were reported to be as high fluxes of energy to a minor.

Clinically, the cavity preparation in enamel Results of ablation craters with a chalky white appearance on the surface of the crater (Tokonabe et al., 1999). In the edges of the cavity dentin are sharp and tubes remaining open without smear layer. In a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Er: YAG laser for caries removal and cavity preparation in dentin and enamel (Cozean et al, 1997), Class I, II, III, IV and V cavities were prepared amalgam and composite restorations. It was found that the laser EnYAG the equivalent of air over the rotor in its ability to Preparation cavity decay of the enamel and dentin and remove. However, the floor of the preparation was not as smooth as those obtained with drilling high speed.

caries removal

shitty equipment has a higher water content compared with tissues surrounding healthy dental hard. Therefore, the effectiveness of the removal of caries is higher than for normal tissues. There is a possible selectivity to eliminate cavities materials by Er: YAG laser because of the need of energy for its removal from different tissues and precarious and cooking of healthy tissue minimally affected. However, Rechmann et al. (1998) found that the selective removal of carious dentin is difficult with the Er: YAG laser. Boundaries for the removal of healthy dentin and dentin caries are different. The threshold for removal of healthy dentin is twice the threshold for of carious dentin.

Therefore, the very low flows of energy (the energy (joules) / Area (cm2)) of the Er: YAG energy is necessary for the selective removal of carious dentin. This flow of low energy result in low efficiency the ablation process (Shigetani, 2002). In another in vitro study investigating the effectiveness of laser removal cavity Er: YAG laser was found that the Er: YAG laser ablation dentin caries effectively with minimal thermal damage to surrounding intact dentin (Aoki and Ishikawa et al., 1998). The laser removes infected and softened dentine caries in the same treatment as strawberries. In addition, a low level of vibration was observed with Er: YAG laser. However, the study did not address the question of the selective removal of caries and other studies of caries removal laser shows.

Food Disposal

Laser: Er: YAG is capable of removing the cement, resin composite and glass ionomer (Dostálová et al., 1998, Gimbel, 2000). The efficacy of ablation is comparable to that of enamel and dentin. Lasers should not be used for removal of amalgam fillings, however, because of the potential release of mercury vapor. Laser: Er: YAG is unable to dispose of crowns, restorations casting and ceramics due to poor absorption of these materials and reflection of light Laser (Keller et al., 1998). These limitations underline the need for operator training adapted to the use of lasers.

Engraving

Laser engraving has been evaluated as an alternative to burn the enamel and dentin. Laser: Er: YAG micro-explosions occur during ablation hard tissue that give rise to irregularities microscopic and macroscopic. These micro-irregularities on the surface of enamel micro-retention and may provide a mechanism for setting without burning. However, it was shown that the adhesion to hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser etching is less that obtained after conventional acid etching (Martinez-Insua et al., 2000). These authors attributed the low power laser on enamel and dentin consists of presence of cracks in the basement after laser radiation. This crack is not seen in conventional etched surfaces. The cracks in the basement have contributed to the strong prevalence of broken teeth, the laser link is compatible with both enamel and dentin.

A similar conclusion was drawn from a study comparing the shear strength (SBS) of composite to dentin surfaces following different treatments (Ceballos et al., 2001). These authors reported an acid treatment specimens reached the highest values of SBS, while the laser treatment showed results SBS weak. These results suggest that large cracks caused by the laser treatment and strength as a result of poor binding can outweigh the presumed benefits engraving laser.

Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity

Dentin hypersensitivity is one of The most frequent complaints in clinical dentistry. treatment modalities and the application of concentrated fluoride to seal the exposed dentinal tubules was tested for the treatment condition. However, the success rate can be greatly improved by the ongoing evaluation of lasers in hard tissue applications. A comparison of the effects of desensitization Er: YAG laser with a conventional system in exposed cervical dentin desensitizing hypersensitive (Schwarz et al., 2002) have shown that desensitization of hypersensitive dentin with a pulsed Er: YAG laser is effective and the maintenance of a result positive is longer than other agents.

Decay Prevention

Several studies have examined the possibility of using lasers to prevent caries (Hossain et al., 2000, Apel et al., 2003). It is believed that the laser irradiation of dental hard tissues amending calcium phosphate linked carbonate to reduce the amount of phosphorous, and leads to the formation of more stable and less soluble compounds in acid, reduced sensitivity to acid attack and caries. Laboratory studies have indicated that the enamel surface exposed to laser radiation are more resistant acids than non-laser treated surfaces (Watanabe et al., 2001, Arimoto et al., 2001).

The degree of protection against cavities advance due to treatment First One laser has been reported to be comparable to daily treatment with a fluoride toothpaste with fluoride (Featherstone, 2000). The pH threshold of enamel dissolution have increased from 5.5 to 4.8, and the hard tooth structure was four times more resistant to acid dissolution. However, the actual mechanism of resistance acid-laser irradiation is still unclear and studies, including in vivo evidence of these assertions are necessary.

Whitening

The goal of laser whitening process to achieve effective bleaching using the power source energy more efficiently, while avoiding side effects (Sun, 2000). power of money has its origin in the use of high intensity light to raise temperature hydrogen peroxide, which accelerates the chemical process of bleaching. The FDA has approved the rules of teeth whitening has authorized three-wavelength argon laser dentistry, CO2 and GaAlAs diode latest 980-nm. There are currently no reports on the use of Er: YAG laser techniques in bleaching. The wavelength laser Er: YAG laser may be inappropriate for the form, but it is a new area that could be explored.

CONCLUSION

The Er: YAG laser was found to have applications in areas such as cavity preparation, removal caries and the restoration and etching of the enamel. However, advantages and limitations of Er: YAG laser treatments have not been fully documented. There seems to be windows of opportunity for the Er: YAG laser in a series dental applications. Lasers can revolutionize the design of the cavity and preparation based on the development of adhesive dentistry.

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