Wooden Thread Rack

January 8, 2010 by  
Filed under Die Cutting Machines and Supplies

At Die Cut Machines your source for Die Cutting Machines and Crafting Supplies we hope the Wooden Thread Rack products and information here meets your needs.

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For support for the bobbin thread?

I saw a rubber device containing a spool of thread and bobbin counterpart. It falls on a reel Wood / spool rack. I have no idea what they are called or where to find them. Can someone help me?

Maybe it's Handi-Bobs, "as seen in Nancy binding site concept down, and Clotilde door, too. You may be able to find there, too, stores like Hobby Lobby, Jo-Ann Fabrics and Hancock - Often have "40% off coupon, and not have to pay shipping. Good luck!

Management of a poor harvest the best possible way

The only post-harvest treatment required for long-term storage of onion bulb is a full cure blisters. Curing is a drying process to dry the neck and the extent of the outer leaves of the bulbs to prevent loss of moisture and the attack by the deterioration during storage. What is essential for healing and good heat ventilation, preferably with low humidity. This dry neck and two or three outer layers of the bulb. The outermost layer, which can be contaminated with dirt, not generally come easily when the bulbs are cured, exposing the dry layer below, which should have a look attractive. Onions are considered cured when the neck is tight and touch until outerscales dry. This condition is reached when onions have lost 3 to 5% by weight.

If dry onions not be on the ground, can be collected in containers that are stacked in a warm place, covered ventilation.

In cold climates the onions and wet bulk dry and ventilated with artificial heat blown through most of sheath to a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius.

Onions also can be cured by tying the tops of the bulbs in bunches and hang them on a horizontal bar in a shaded and well ventilated. Drying in the shade improves color and reduces losses significantly during storage tank

Onions are classified after hardening manually before they go into storage or marketing. The thick neck bulbs, screws, two wounded and refused to be found so small misshapen bulbs. Selection and classification is made after storage in seeking a better price. Ladders outside rubbing usually dry during the classification process onion give a better look for the market. It has been shown that if storage is available after the correct classification and the classification of storage losses is reduced.

For the local market onions are classified according to their size.

Extra large onion (> 6 cm in diameter.)

Middle (4-6 cm in diameter.)

Small (2-4 cm in diameter.)

Extra large onions in great demand and sold very cheap.

The bulbs must:

• be reasonably uniform in shape, size and color of the pungency of the variety and type of
• be mature, to feel strong enough to keep the firm on the leather hard.
• be all cured and dried.

• be free dust and other foreign bodies.

• be free from defects, bulbs sick, deteriorated and damage caused by seed stalks, tapas
• Ootsa, humidity, sun scald, dry, germination, mechanical or other injuries and stains.

• Be free of mold soft rot and insect attacks.
•% of the stem of seeds and bulbs are screwed shall not exceed 20% of kharif onion Nasik.

Bangalore and Krishnapuram onions will be free of bottlenecks or double bottle.

grade designations and definitions of quality for the export of onions:

different size, but not below 15

1. Tolerance to the size of large onions: the case of accidental errors of the size, not more than 5% by weight of bulbs in a lot for the level immediately below the minimum expected diameter in Nasik, Saurashtra, Bellary onion and Poona. Podisu If this error does not exceed 10% by weight. In this case, most clustered small onion would be taken to measure the diameter.

2. Defective, diseased or damaged lamps, bulbs and malformed internal or external quality damaged, discolored or diseased material on. Onion can not exceed 2% in one batch.
General: The qualification will be allowed to be packed only against irrevocable letter of credit.

# NS grade: This is not a grade in its strict sense, but it is expected that the onions not included in the standard rate. Onions are exported in this category only against a specific order of the quality of induction foreign buyer.


The package must be small to facilitate handling during transport and may vary by market demand. Onions are packed in jute (burlap) in sacks for the transport of the court, or is loose. For handling, 40 kg open mesh jute bags weighing 200-300 g should be used in the domestic market. For export large onions are common packaged in sizes 5-25 kg open mesh jute bags.

Bangalore Rose Onions and potatoes are packed for export baskets 14-15 kg wood. nylon net bags, when used for packaging have resulted in a loss of less storage with ventilation.


Bulbs used for storage should be free of cuts and treated with extreme care. Onions should not fall on the surface is more elastic 6 feet tall. If onions are stacked in the warehouse after packing or trucks, the best height 2-2.5 meters. Losses due to rot is reported to be more if the onions are stored in jute bags or in bulk in wooden boxes.


Storage adequacy of the bulbs is necessary both for consumption and for seed production. Onions should not be stored dry properly unless it is field or by artificial means. It is necessary to dry the tissues of the neck and external ladders to crash while driving contrary Bulbs will rot in storage. Outbreak of onion is controlled by temperature. The temperature between 10-25 ° C increases germination. Rooting is influenced by relative humidity (RH).

The higher the relative humidity, the more roots. Weight loss more when the temperature is above 35 ° C. Environmental conditions that onions are stored at a temperature of 30-35 ° C with a relative humidity of 65-70%. In cold storage, the temperature is maintained at 0-2 ° C, while the relative humidity is maintained at 60-75%.

Outbreak way effective if it is sprayed Maleic hydrazide at 2500 ppm in 75-90 days after transplantation. The effect was more prevalent in the season Kharif Rabi season. Rotting storage can be controlled if the cleaning is always in the shop and sprayed crops carbendazim 0.1% after 90 days transplantation and just before harvest. In India, the practice of storage methods of farmers. Onions are stored in bulk in private houses with roof thatch and lateral walls are made with bamboo sticks or wire mesh for good air circulation. In northern India, the parties are also covered with burlap. Onions are stored in these warehouses by spreading dry test and wet or shelves. periodic rotation of bulbs bulbs or disposal of decayed, damaged or sprouted to. Very well ventilated and improved storage structures with shelves or levels two or three layers of bulbs would be desirable for proper storage.

The main features of improved storage structures are following
• Construction of storage godown raised helps to reduce moisture and humidity

• The use of Mangalore tiles or other suitable material prevents high temperature built inside.

• Increase height of the center and much more is better for air circulation and prevent moist microclimate inside godown.

• The low wind provides for free movement and rapid air to prevent formation of pockets of heat and moisture between the layers of the onion.

• Avoid direct sunlight bulbs to reduce sunlight, fading and deterioration of quality.

• Limit the width of each cell to 60-70 cm for the cold and damp, 75-90 cm for the hot, humid and 90-120 cm for mild conditions, dry

• Limit the stacking height and 100 cm for the onion and the multiplier and the warm climate and 120 cm for the mild climate and large onion to avoid pressure bruises.

• Cabins must rather stack Continuing leaving enough space for ventilation on all sides.

A field of cubic meters of storage capacity of approximately 750 kg of onions.

onion populations are transported in carts, tractors and trucks, cars are also used for movement and distance learning in the country. Onions are transported in ships and ventilated yachts, boats for export to the Gulf countries and Southeast Asia. Will also be awarded 3.5 million containers or 7 million for cargo.
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2.1 Processes before harvest

Status of onion leaves is a good indicator of the maturity and the overall state of the bulb. Bulb onions should be stored be allowed to mature before harvest, which happens when the leaves are folded over the top of the bulb and fall. As a practical guide, farmers must rely on the sample the number of bulbs, which fell more than one field, and when the percentage of bulbs, which have fallen to about 70-80%, then the whole crop should be harvested. The collection could begin earlier, when 50-80% of peaks were passed before you can see the exposure of onion skin distribution of storage losses of meat on the optimal maturity, are generally lower than those collected before tapas collapse. Lamps generally mature within 100-140 days after sowing, depending on cultivar and climate.

Onions white for harvest after 35-45 days after sowing. harvesting should be allowed to dry or cure and ripen in the sun for several days after emergence. Onions can produce up 5-1 in t.ha growing conditions and good management.

2.2 Collection and transportation

manual harvesting is a common practice in most developing countries. This is normally done by prying bulbs with a fork to loosen and remove the glasses by hand. In developed countries, particularly in large-scale mechanical harvesting operations is commonly used. Collection techniques adopted are influenced by climatic conditions during harvest. In areas where hot, dry weather occurs reliably, drying and bagging Harvesting can be done in the field (two of the collection phase). In more humid temperate crop, mechanical and heating and ventilation artificial drying are essential for the reliable production of high quality bulbs on a large scale.

Following steps are followed by two stages of onion crop: (a) cut the leaves (if necessary), (b) release, undermining the onions and screening Remove the stones and clods, (c) the role of soil in line to get a flat surface (D) drying the bulbs (lines) from 8 to 10 days in the field, (e) turning the bulb 1 to 2 times, (f) the collection, screening and classification of the labor, overhead on a trailer or in boxes, and (g) transportation. For a period of harvest of crops in general commercial potatoes have been adapted. After cutting the leaves of the crop is immediately screened, hand sorted and loaded into the trailer. With additional operations costs resulting from labor for harvesting two stages from 30 to 100% higher than in a phase of crop. The main disadvantage of harvesting phase is the high consumption energy for mechanical drying. The combined use of the harvest, the regular hours of work was estimated at 2.7 2,9-1 hr.ha to stumble, turning and 2.4-2.6-1 hr.ha hr.ha 8.9-11-1 (KTBL, 1993).

harvested bulbs are placed in containers (baskets containing) or tied in bundles and placed directly on the floor of a trailer for transport. These trailers can be towed by an animal (like the donkey) or mechanical transport, as a tractor. The two systems of packaging and transport must be selected to ensure minimal handling to produce damage. Hard surfaces should be dampened with leaves, moss or other appropriate force retardants.

2.3 Curing and Drying

Both cure and dry the excess moisture in the outer layers of the bulb before storing. Dry skin is a barrier to loss of surface water and microbial infections, thus preserving the main edible tissue fresh. Drying reduces withdrawal when handling later reduced the outbreaks, and allows the crop to mature before eating fresh or long-term storage (Opara and Geyer, 1999). The dehydration process sometimes called "cure", but the use of the word "healing" of onion drying is quite inaccurate, since no cell regeneration or healing of injuries occurring in other root crops such as yam and cassava. Drying reduces the weight of the bulb and because it is most often sold by weight, to achieve the desired level of dehydration is essential. The weight loss of 3-5% are normal, dry and up to 10% with artificial drying.

In conventional operations small scale, onion drying is done in a process called "strings". This is the collection of mature bulbs and make them on their sides (lines) on the surface of dry soil 1 to 2 weeks. In hot climates and tropical, they should be stacked so to reduce the surface exposed to minimize damage due to exposure to direct sunlight. In humid climates, the bulbs may take longer to dry can develop greater levels of rot during storage. The side of the bulb in contact with moist soil or moisture can also develop strains of brown or pixels, which reduces the quality of the appearance and value. Clearly, success is dependent rows weather conditions and can not be invoked for the large scale production of commercial activity onion. The harvested bulbs for storage requiring a total of 14-20 days of maturation or drying before being stored. harvested onions can also be placed in trays that are stacked on one side of the field to dry. In some tropical areas, the bulbs are gathered in groups of plaiting the glasses, which are then poles hung in sheds to dry naturally.

harvested bulbs can also be taken directly on the field and artificially dried or in a store, warehouse, barn, or in a dryer integrated services. This method is often used when crops are stored in bulk, but can also be applied to bags, boxes or containers. Under this method, the bulbs are placed in racks and the hot air rapidly through the surface of night and day bulbs [O'Connor, 1979; Brice et al., 1997]. Drying can take 7-10 days and is considered completed when the neck of the bulbs have dried and are skin tight and cry when held in hand. The level of humidity in the store is critical. Under high humidity, drying is delayed and fungal infection may increase. However, if the relative humidity is the loss of water is too low (below 60%), excessive layers break outer bulb may occur, resulting in loss of storage and reduce the value of the bulb. Place the onions in the wire well ventilation and air conditions at 30 ° C, relative humidity 60-75% and 150 m³. H-3-1.M is generally recommended for Mechanical drying onions.

2.4 Cleaning

The freedom of all impurities that may significantly alter the appearance or eating quality is essential. Soil and other foreign material must be removed and bad products should be discarded. Cleaning can be done using air or manually by removing unwanted surface material of the bulb.
Care must be taken to avoid injury in the bulb during these operations.

2.5 Packaging

General Information

Proper packaging of the onions must meet the criteria following: (a) strong enough to maintain the required weight of onions under the conditions of transport and storage, (b) adequate ventilation air around the bulbs to keep the relative humidity within the required range, and (c) in many cases a way to show the legal obligation and commercially necessary information (Brice et al. 1999).

There are many traditional methods of finding the onions for transportation and / or storage which does not correspond to the classifications of conventional packaging. These include "string of onions, shelves and the word loose aggregates "Pack the onion, the bulbs are linked by their lenses to produce a batch of bulbs is also a form of conditioning. This is appropriate for transporting small quantities of harvest and during storage, the grapes are hanging from the ceiling or brackets. Shelves Handling and storage onions are made of wooden slats or metal mesh or wooden or metal, and generally in a fixed position, loading and unloading Store bulbs.

Ventilation (natural or forced) is generally achieved by passing air over the shelves. Achieving good ventilation of homes, the depth of the bulbs on the shelves are limited to 10 cm.

Onions are also stored in bulk bulk (rather as containers), Rant bulbs directly on the ground or elevated. Because they are not limited to, bulbs roll during loading of the store to fill the storage space. Bulk storage allows maximum utilization of warehouse space and ventilation even easier to realize that piles of bags or rigid containers.

However, if the bulk is applied, Retaining walls must be strengthened for storing large quantities of bulbs, and provision must be made before rebagging subsequent marketing. It is also difficult to inspect regular bulbs, these storage conditions. Bulk Handling Bulk onion is most suitable for large scale operations, where ventilation can be ensured for the long-term storage. Soft varieties (which are also generally sweet) "Vidalia Sweets" should not be stored in bulk bulk because of their high sensitivity to compression and shocks.

Onions can be packaged and stored in a variety containers such as boxes, cartons, bags, bulk containers, pre-packaging, plastic bags, stretch film and plates. Packages generally containing 25 kg or more, especially for transporting the harvest from farm to store and / or during storage. The same 25 kg bags or small bags can be used store on the market. Decision on the type of container used depends on the size of the harvest, storage time and marketing. A problem with onion packed in boxes, mesh bags and bulk containers is that if it is too large, and the flow of air tends to be rather than through them. In these conditions, breakdown of the results of heat in a hot bulb and moist in the middle of the pack, which can lead to tooth decay or germination. To avoid these problems supermarkets, capital investment can be very important source.

Onion Bag

Sacks and nets used for packing onions are classified into three groups: (i) of jute bags for general use, which is used for many agricultural products, (ii) the mesh bags and sisal fibers, (iii) open-mesh networks, usually plastic and (iv) large bags, used as an alternative to the boxes, which contain up to 1000 kg. Jute bags are readily available in most developing countries, but its disadvantages are: (I) is generally too high - can hold 100 kg onion, difficult to use and an increased risk of mechanical damage, (Ii) the bulbs are not visible through the fabric, and it is difficult to monitor the condition during storage, (Iii) there is some resistance to airflow when used in a gas deposit, (iv) difficult to tag efficiently, and (v) recycled bags may encourage spread postharvest diseases.

sisal bags are made from hard fibers such as sisal and an open weave with a thick wire, spaced about 10 cm and 15 outside. The primary nature of the fiber allows a very stable tissue. These bags are similar to jute bags, but will allow limited visibility of the onion and airflow impedance is lower.

Open mesh networks are the most widely used package for onions, and are usually red or orange. The elusiveness of plastic can result in the movement of son who makes big holes open. To overcome this problem, alternative networks to industrial production with mesh bag completely stable and strong. The main techniques are: (i) through PVC mesh extruded high density, (ii) fabrics (tissues) and asymmetrical construction, and (iii) the son of special fabric frame are double, and twisted. It decomposes also slowly by sunlight, and should not be left outside for long period before use. Versus other types of bags, offer several advantages, including: (i) lightweight, small volume vacuum (Ii) generally available in sizes 12.5 and 25 kg, (iii) the bulbs pretty good visibility, (iv) excellent ventilation, (v) health, (vi) the closing easy (extraction rate of chain only), (vii) and information about the brand marketing of crops and can be printed in the middle of the bag for easy identification.


A range of rigid containers used to pack onions for transport, marketing and / or storage (Opara and Geyer, 1999). are rigid main dishes (10-15 kg each of onions), boxes (25 kg), and bulk containers (up to 1000 kg). These types of containers allows the segregation different varieties of onion or sources. Selection of packaging materials is important that the wooden crates, for example, are susceptible to termites, and weather conditions during the offseason. Rigid are also expensive, require regular maintenance and a forklift is needed for processing the larger container. When the rigid containers are used for storage of onions, the building's design is simpler than that of large scale loose bulk storage building retaining walls are not required to support the bulbs. Loss management of blisters during filling and drain may be high, but the damage is reduced during loading and unloading of the store relative to the bulk handling and storage.

Stacking containers must be to ensure that the ventilation air is forced through the containers of bulbs and not the around. A major advantage of rigid containers is to facilitate regular inspections of products, and in case of problem with the battery, the affected area is often limited to a few trays, boxes or containers that can be more easily isolated and separated in bulk handling system.

Pre-packs Onion

Onions are commonly sold in retail stores in the pre-packaging of a capacity of 0.5-1.5 kg. Prepackaged offers the following advantages over the bulbs while piles or bags of: (i) the price may be linked to production, (ii) the compilation of a series of parts into a single unit sale may promote the sale of a greater amount than they can buy otherwise, (iii) provides an environment own unit toilets for customers to manage, and (iv) reduces the time spent at the hotel. The use of weight / price labeling machines and bar code has reduced the need to pack fixed nominal pesos. In preparation for retail sale, the amount of product is measured by hand or typed and completed in the package. Then, the actual weight and price and / or bar codes are automatically calculated and printed on a label affixed on the packaging. This machining weight and labeling system helps to keep accurate records of the packer and to avoid losses Weight Kits incorrect. The three main types of networks that onions are pre-packaging, plastic bags, film, and stretchable wrapped tray
2.6 Storage in bulk

General Requirements

The onion storage goals are to extend the period of availability Culture maintain optimum quality and lamp to minimize the loss of physical, physiological and pathological conditions. The bulbs selected for storage should be firm and dry, thin neck. Has thick neck bulbs, because they are more likely to have high moisture content that the optimum for storage, and thus have short shelf life. color must be typical of the variety. microbial infections such as Aspergillus Niger occur during the production of onions, but these develop only in the bulbs during storage in storage environment is conducive to growth. Before storage, crops must be cleaned and sorted and any damaged or diseased bulbs slaughtered.

Careful harvesting and processing of pre-storage with minimal mechanical stress are important to achieve a long storage period. The storage temperature and relative humidity and composition affect atmospheric lifetime can be achieved. Several options are available for bulk storage technology of onions, including storage under climate temperate, high temperature storage, the storage of crops and direct the use of controlled atmosphere (CA) stores. The storage conditions recommended in these systems are summarized below.

Storage at low temperature

For proper storage at low temperature, good ventilation and low humidity of about 70-75% is essential. To maintain good quality crops, storage time varies, but can go up to 200 days. For maximum storage and minimum losses of bulbs should have arrived maturity at harvest, and dry until the "neck" of the bulb is tight. For storing large-scale commercial, onions usually stored in the refrigerator and the conditions recommended are between 0 ° C with 70-75% relative humidity. ventilation and regular monitoring of temperature and relative humidity in the store are necessary to prevent large fluctuations environmental conditions. During the first days of storage at fans provide airflow to remove the water in the dry outer skin and injuries. The air at high speed is necessary for a period of up to 1 week until the skin of the upper layers of onions in bulk squeaks. Excess moisture in the store will result in root development and promote the decomposition, while Higher temperatures lead to germination and promote the development of diseases like botrytis (Thompson, 1982) below freezing Bulbs -3 ° C and storage temperature and relative humidity have been recommended for the safe storage of onions (Table 5). spring (Green) onions are best kept at about 0 ° C and high humidity (95%) (Table 6). The maximum storage in these conditions, varies from a few days for about 3 weeks.

Ventilation must be carefully applied inside the tent to reach the required temperature and moisture levels and without causing condensation of water on the surface.

Storage onions at high temperature

Onions can be stored at high temperatures above 25 ° C in a range of relative humidity (75-85%) than what is necessary to minimize loss of water.
Storage at temperatures of 25-30 ° C has been shown to reduce germination and root growth compared to storage at low temperature (10-20 º C). However, weight loss, dry bulb, and decay products of high temperature, This makes the system does not pay for long storage period required for the marketing of onion with a success (Thompson et al., 1972, Stow, 1975). In tropical climates, the storage temperature of the onion rates can be obtained under air and heated storage conditions. Under these conditions, ventilation should be carefully applied in Shop to reach the required temperature and humidity levels.

Storage Harvest 'Direct

The need to cure onions can cause significant challenges in situations where time is unpredictable During the harvest period. To overcome these problems, the "system of direct intake" has been developed and widely used, especially by farmers in the United Kingdom since the early 1980s. The bulbs are harvested green, capped, loaded into the storage, drying and hardening of the system with controlled ventilation shaft, then stored at low temperature long term as required (Table 7). During Phase I, removing excess moisture from the surface to get a cheap high air flow, regardless of the relative humidity. Stage II is completed when the skin has been cured of the pear. Proper control of storage conditions at different stages is crucial for success of this storage system for maintaining the necessary quality of the bulb.

One is used in combination with coldstorage to extend conservation of the onion. The recommended composition of air and temperature regimes are summarized in Table 8. Onions are generally tolerant higher levels of CO2 and O2 onions, and levels of necessary combination of CO2 and O2 varies depending on the storage temperature (Table 9). The commercial success of CA storage of onion bulbs limited due to variable and contradictory effects on the quality of the bulb. However, carbon dioxide High carbon (0-5%) and low oxygen levels (1-3%) in association with levels of storage at low temperature has been shown to reduced germination and root growth (Sealand, 1991; Hardenburg et al., 1990). The combination of CA storage (5% CO2, O2, 3%) and refrigerated storage (1 ° C) also resulted in 99% of marketable onion bulbs seen after 7 months of storage, however, 9% were weight loss (Smittle, 1989).

response to CA storage onion cultivars vary. Therefore, both experiments should be conducted under conditions local governments to determine the appropriate level of gas composition appropriate for the safe storage of local crops. CA storage usually increases the spicy characteristics of cultivars. For the "Sweet Viladia", characterized by its low flavor and sweetness, the recommended storage conditions (Smittle, 1989): 1 º C, 70-80% RH, 3% O2, 5% CO2, 92% N2, and the rate of breakdown 1.m3 5.m3.h onions.

2.7 Resolution processing

onion bulbs generally desired sizes and shapes with a knife. Many commercial devices are also available for chopping onions. In certain food preparations onions are mixed with other ingredients to produce the desired flavor.

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